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Psych Chap. 5

Psychology Exam for Chapter 5

QuestionAnswer
Classical Conditioning A type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another
Stimulus Any Event or object in the environment to which an organism responds.
Unconditioned Response (UR)A response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)A stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response without prior learning.
Give An Example of an Unconditioned Stimulus and Response From Book PG. 147: Unconditioned Reflexes: US: Food UR: Salavation US: Loud Noise UR: Startle US: light in eye UR: Contraction in Pupil US: puff of air in eye UR: eye blink response
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)A neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes associated with it and elicits a conditioned response.
Conditioned Stimulus A neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes associated with it and elicits a conditioned response.
Conditioned Response (CR) The learned response that comes to be elicited by a conditioned stimulus as a result of its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus.
High-Order Conditioning Conditioning that occurs when conditioned stimuli are linked together to Form a series of Signals.
Conditioned Response (CR) The learned response that comes to be elicited by a conditioned stimulus as a result of its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus.
High-Order Conditioning Conditioning that occurs when conditioned stimuli are linked together to Form a series of Signals.
Extinction In Classical Conditioning, the weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response as a result of repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus w/o the unconditioned stimulus.
Spontaneous recovery The reappearance of an extinguished response (in weaker form) when an organism is exposed to the original conditioned stimulus following a rest period.
Generalization In classical conditioning, the tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus.
Discrimination The learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli so that the conditioned response occurs only to the original conditioned stimulus but not to similar stimuli.
Biological Predispositions Genetically programmed tendencies to acquire classically conditioned fear responses to potentially life-threatening stimuli
Taste Variation The intense dislike and/or avoidance of a particular food that has been associated with nausea or discomfort.
Law of Effect One of Thorndike's laws of learning, which states that the consequence, or effect, of a response will determine whether the tendency to respond in the same way in the future will be strengthened or weakened.
Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which the consequences of behavior are manipulated so as to increase or decrease the frequency of an existing response or to shape an entirely new response.
Operant A voluntary behavior that accidentally brings about on consequence.
reinforcer Anything that follows a response and strengthens it or increases the probability that will occur.
Reinforcement Any even that follows a response and strengthens or increases the probability that the response will be repeated.
Positive Reinforcement Any pleasant or desirable consequence that follows a response and increases the probability that the response will be repeated.
Negative reinforcement The termination of an unpleasant condition after a response, which increases the probability that the response will be repeated.
Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which the consequences of behavior are manipulated so as to increase or decrease the frequency of an existing response or to shape an entirely new response.
Operant A voluntary behavior that accidentally brings about on consequence.
reinforcer Anything that follows a response and strengthens it or increases the probability that will occur.
Reinforcement Any even that follows a response and strengthens or increases the probability that the response will be repeated.
Positive Reinforcement Any pleasant or desirable consequence that follows a response and increases the probability that the response will be repeated.
Negative reinforcement The termination of an unpleasant condition after a response, which increases the probability that the response will be repeated.
Primary Reinforcer is one that fulfills a basic physical need for survival and does not depend on learning.
Secondary Reinforcer A reinforcer that is acquired or learned through association with other reinforcer's
Schedule of reinforcement A systematic process for administering reinforcement
Fixed-Ratio Schedule A schedule in which a reinforcer is given after a fixed number of correct non-reinforcement responses
Variable-ratio Schedule A schedule in which a reinforcer is given after a varying number of non-reinforced responses, based on a average ratio
Partial reinforcement effect The typical outcome of a variable ratio of reinforcement in which a slow rate of initial learning is coupled with resistance to extinction.
Fixed- Interval Schedule A schedule in which a reinforcer is given following the first correct response after a specific period of time has elapsed.
Variable Interval Schedule A schedule in which a reinforcer is given after the first correct response that follow a varying time of non-reinforcement based on an average time.
Shaping An operant conditioning technique that consists of gradually molding a desired behavior (response) by reinforcing any movement in the direction of the desired response, thereby gradually guiding the responses toward the ultimate goal.
Skinner Box A soundproof chamber with a device for delivering food to an animal subject; used in operant conditioning experiments.
Successive Approximations A series of gradual steps, each of which is more similar to the final desired response
Extinction In operant conditioning, the weakening and eventual disappearance of conditioned response as a result of the withholding of reinforcement
Generalization In operant conditioning, the tendency to make the learned response to a stimulus similar to that for which the response was originally reinforced.
Discriminative Stimulus A stimulus that signals whether a certain response or behavior is likely to be rewarded, ignored or punished.
Punishment The removal of a pleasant stimulus or the application of an unpleasant stimulus, thereby lowering the probability of a response.
Positive Punishment A decrease in behavior that results from an added consequence.
Negative Punishment A decrease in behavior that results from a removed consequence.
Avoidance Learning Learning to avoid events or conditions associated with aversive consequences or phobias.
Learned helplessness A passive resignation to aversive conditions that is learned through repeated exposure to inescapable or unavoidable aversive events.
Biofeedback The use of sensitive equipment to give people precise feedback about internal physiological processes so that they can learn, with practice, to exercise control over them.
Behavior modification A method of changing behavior through a systematic program based on the learning principles of classical conditioning, or observational learning.
Token economy A program that motivates socially desirable behavior by reinforcing it with token that can be exchanged for desired item or privileges.
Cognitive Processes Mental processes such as thinking, knowing, problem solving, remembering, and forming mental representations.
Insight The sudden Realization of the relationship between elements in a problem situation, which makes the solution apparent.
Latent Learning Learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and is no demonstrated until the organism is motivated to do so.
Cognitive Map A mental representation of a spatial arrangement such as a maze
Observational learning (Social- cognitive learning) Learning by observing the behavior or others and the consequences of that behavior; learning by imitation.
Model The individual who demonstrates a behavior or whose behavior is imitated
Modeling Effect Learning a new behavior from a model through the acquisition of new responses.
Facilitation Effect Exhibiting a behavior similar to that shown by a model in an unfamiliar situation.
Inhibitory Effect Suppressing a behavior because a model is punished for displaying the behavior
Disinhibitory Effect Displaying a previously suppressed behavior because a model does so without receiving punishment.
Created by: barl2041