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CSD 632 Research

Chapter 8: Evaluating Treatment Efficacy Research

QuestionAnswer
What is treatment effectiveness? When the client shows a statistically significant improvement in his/her communication skills upon "routine application" of the intervention, this is known as ____________.
What is the therapeutic effect? Evidence of beneficial physiological change due to application of treatment.
What is an FCM? Functional Communication Measures are disorder-specific scales that divide the communicative abilities of individuals w/a disorder into 7 functional levels; used at begining and end of treatment to determine treatment benefits.
What is an ultimate outcome? The type and level of performance the clinician hopes the client will eventually achieve.
What is treatment efficiency? The "cost analysis" of a treatment--the amount of money, length of time for intervention, frequency and intensity of treatment needed to reach the ultimate outcome.
What is treatment outcomes research? This type of research identifies the benefits of treatment which helps researchers determine the treatment's relationship to the client's functional improvements.
What are the 3 things treatment efficacy studies must demonstrate? Internal validity, statistical significance, and practical significance must be demonstrated to prove ______________.
What is stratified random sampling? An alternative method of simple random sampling that helps improve generalizability by choosing the random sample from a subgroup of the target population.
What is cluster sampling? A method of random sampling in which a group is selected at random and all members become subjects.
What is multistage sampling? A method of random sampling in which subgroups of subgroups are selected to obtain participating subjects. Ex. school district --> school --> grade --> classroom
What is systematic replication? Reproducing a finding in a subsequent study; Effective in improving generalization
What is direct replication? Occurs when the investigator repeats the research with the same or new subjects to confirm reliability of original results; Effective in improving generalization
What is the weakest level of evidence? Expert opinion ranks where in terms of levels of evidence?
What does PICO stand for? Population Intervention Comparison Outcome
What is a pre-experimental design? AKA single-group design; usually for exploratory purposes or to describe therapeutic effects/ outcomes. Weak on their own b/c they don't show adequate internal /external validity, better when part of a process of establishing treatment efficacy
What is one-shot case study design? Type of pre-experimental design; weak; Single group observed only once after being exposed to some treatment.
What is a one-group pretest-posttest design? Type of pre-experimental design; One group is assembled, pre-tested, exposed to experimental treatment, and posttested.
What is a quasi-experimental design? Unlike pre-experimental designs, these designs use control groups with which an experimental group may be compared. Limitations: hard to manipulate IVs, poorly controlled extraneous variables
What is a non-equivalent control group design? Type of quasi-experimental design; Two groups: first group is pre-tested, exposed to experimental treatment, posttested. Second group is pretested, NOT exposed, posttested.
Created by: wyhanes