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Old Linux Ch 2 Terms

CIT222 Ch 2 Terms

Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) A motherboard connection slot designed for video card peripherals allowing data transfer speeds of over 66MHz.
Advanced Power Management (APM) A BIOS feature that shuts off power to peripheral devices that are not being used to save electricity; commonly used on laptop computers.
Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) See also Integrated Drive Electronics
Architecture The design and layout of a CPU; also called a computer platform.
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) The section of the CPU in which all the mathematical calculations and logic-based operations are executed.
Asymmetric Multiprocessing A system containing more than one processor in which each processor is given a certain role or set of tasks to complete independently of the other processors.
BIOS (Basic Input / Output System) ROM The computer chips on a computer mainboard that contain the programs used to initialize hardware components at boot time.
Bit The smallest unit of information that a computer can compute.
Bus A term that represents the pathway information takes from one hardware device to another via a mainboard.
Cache A temporary store of information used by the processor.
Central Processing Unit (CPU) An integrated circuit board used to perform the majority of all calculations on a computer system; also known as a processor or microprocessor.
Clock Speed The speed at which a processor (or any other hardware device) can execute commands related to an internal time cycle.
Color Depth The total set of colors that can be displayed on a computer video screen.
COM Ports The rectangular, nine-pin connectors that can be used to connect a variety of different peripherals to the mainboard, including mice, serial printers, scanners, and digital cameras; also called serial ports.
Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) the physically durable, removable storage media, which is resistant to data corruption and used in CD-ROM drives and CD-RW drives.
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) A computer chip used to store the configurable information used by the BIOS ROM.
Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC) The processors that execute complex instructions on each time cycle.
Control Unit (CU) the area in the processor where instruction code or commands are loaded and carried out.
Direct Memory Access (DMA) A capability provided by some bus architectures that allows peripheral devices the ability to bypass the CPU and talk directly with other peripheral components to enhance performance.
Disk Drive the device that contains either a hard disk, floppy disk, CD-ROM, CD-RW or Zip disk.
DNS Servers The servers that resolve fully qualified domain names (FQDNs) such as www.linux.org to IP addresses so that users can connect to them across the Internet.
Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DDR SDRAM) A form of SDRAM that can transfer information at higher speeds than traditional SDRAM.
Dual Inline Memory Modules (DIMM) A newer connection slot having connectors (pins) along both edges, allowing the array of integrated circuits comprising a stick of RAM to connect to the motherboard.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Server A server on the network that hands out internet Protocol (IP) configuration to computers that request it.
Dynamic RAM (DRAM) A type of RAM that needs to refresh its store of information thousands of times per second and is available as a SIMM or DIMM stick.
Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM) A type of ROM whose information store can not only be erased and rewritten as a whole, but can also be modified singly, leaving other portions intact.
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM) A type of ROM whose information store can be erased and rewritten, but only as a whole.
Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) The RISC architecture used to describe the Itanium processor.
Extended Partition A partition on a HDD that can be further subdivided into components called logical drives.
Filesystem The way in which a HDD partition is formatted to allow data to reside on the physical media; common Linux filesystems include ext2, ext3, REISERFS, and VFAT.
FireWire (IEEE1394) A mainboard connection technology that was developed by Apple Computer Inc. in 1995 and supports data transfer speeds of up to 800MB per second.
Flash Memory Drive A storage medium that uses EEPROM chips to store data.
Floppy Disks A removable storage media consisting of a flexible medium coated with a ferrous material that are read by floppy disk drives.
Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN) The user-friendly names used to identify machines on networks and on the Internet.
Gateway Also known as default gateway or gateway of last resort, the address of a computer that accepts information from the local computer and sends it to other computers if the local computer cannot.
Hard Disk Drive (HDD) A device used to write and read data to and from a hard disk.
Hard Disks nonremovable media consisting of a rigid disk coated with a ferrous material and used in hard disk drives (HDD).
Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) A list of hardware components that have been tested and deemed compatible with a given operating system.
Host Name A user-friendly name used to uniquely identify a computer on a network this name is usually a FQDN.
Hot-Swappable The ability to add or remove hardware to or from a computer while the computer and operating system are functional.
HSync (horizontal refresh) The rate at which horizontal elements of the video screen image are refreshed, allowing for changes or animation of the screen; HSync is measured in Hertz (Hz).
Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) An older motherboard connection slot designed to allow peripheral components an interconnect, and which transfers information at a speed of 8MHz.
Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) Also known as ATA, it consists of controllers that control the flow of information to and from up to four hard disks connected to the mainboard via a ribbon cable.
Internet Protocol (IP) Address The unique number that each computer participating on the Internet must have.
Interrupt Request (IRQ) A unique channel from a device to the CPU.
I/O (Input/Output) Address the small working area of RAM where the CPU can pass information to and receive information from a device.
Level 1 (L1) Cache The cache memory stored in the processor itself
Level 2 (L2) Cache The cache memory stored in a computer chip on the motherboard for use by the processor or within the processor itself.
LEVEL 3 (L3) Cache The cache memory stored in a computer chip on the motherboard for use by the processor.
Logical Drives The smaller partitions contained within an extended partition on a HDD.
LPT Port A rectangular, 25-pin connection to the mainboard used to connect peripheral devices such as printers; also called parallel ports.
Mainboard A circuit board that connects all other hardware components together via slots or ports on the circuit board; also called a motherboard.
Master Boot Record (MBR) The area of a hard disk outside a partition that stores partition information and boot loaders.
Motherboard See also Mainboard.
Netmask Also known as the network mask or subnet mask, it specifies which portion of the IP address identifies the logical network the computer is on.
Network Interface Card (NIC) A hardware device used to connect a computer to a network of other computers and communicate or exchange information on it.
Parallel Port See also LPT Port.
Partitions A small section of an entire hard drive created to make the hard drive easier to use. Partitions can be primary or extended,
Peripheral Component The components that attach to the mainboard of a computer and provide a specific function, such as a video card, mouse, or keyboard.
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) The most common motherboard connection slot found in computers today, which can transfer information at a speed of 33MHz and use DMA.
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) A mainboard connection technology that allows a small card to be inserted with the electronics necessary to provide a certain function.
Physical Memory A storage area for information that is directly wired through circuit boards to the processor.
Plug-and-Play (PnP) A technology that allows peripheral devices to automatically receive the correct IRQ, I/O address, and DMA settings without any user intervention.
Power-On Self Test (POST) The initialization of hardware components by the ROM BIOS when the computer is first powered on.
Primary Partitions the separate divisions into which a HDD can be divided (up to four are allowed per HDD).
Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM) A blank ROM computer chip that can be written to once and never rewritten again.
PS/2 Ports The small, round mainboard connectors developed by IBM with six pins that typically connect keyboards and mice to the computer.
Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (RDRAM) A proprietary type of RAM developed by Rambus Corporation.
Random Access Memory (RAM) A computer chip able to store information that is then lost when there is no power to the system.
Read-Only Memory (ROM) A computer chip able to store information in a static, permanent manner, even when there is no power to the system.
Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC) Processors The relatively fast processors that understand small instruction sets.
Refresh Rate The rate at which information displayed on a video screen is refreshed; it is measured in Hertz (Hz).
Removable Media The information storage media that can be removed from a computer, allowing transfer of data between machines.
Resolution The total number of pixels that can be displayed horizontally and vertically on a computer video screen.
Serial Port See also COM Port.
Single Inline Memory Modules (SIMM) An older type of memory stick that connects to the mainboard using connectors along only one edge.
Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) A technology that consists of controllers that can connect several SCSI HDDs to the mainboard and control the flow of data to and from the SCSI HDDs.
Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Modules (SODIMM) A DIMM module that is physically smaller than traditional DIMM modules and used in notebook and Macintosh computers.
Static Ram (SRAM) An expensive type of RAM commonly used in computer chips on the mainboard and which has a fast access speed.
Superscalar The ability for a computer processor to complete more than one command in a single cycle.
Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) A system containing more than one processor in which each processor shares tasks and memory space.
Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) A form of RAM that uses the standard DIMM connector and transfers data at a very fast rate.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) A mainboard connection technology that allows data transfer speeds of up to 480MB per second and is used for many peripheral components, such as mice, printers, and scanners.
Video Adapter Card A peripheral component used to display graphical images to a computer monitor.
Volatile A term used to describe information storage devices that store information only when there is electrical flow. Conversely, nonvolatile information storage devices store information even when there is no electrical flow.
VSync (Vertical Refresh) The rate at which vertical elements of the video screen image are refreshed measured in Hertz (Hz).
Zip Disk A removable information storage unit similar to a floppy disk that can store much more information than floppy disks and which is used in Zip drives.
Created by: Leisac