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CSD 632: Research

Chapters 4 & 5

QuestionAnswer
What is the dependent variable? The variable to measure outcome; recorded information; results or data; “effect” part the cause/effect relationship
What is experimental research? A type of research that involves the manipulation of variables; Appropriate way of studying cause and effect relationships among variables; IVs are manipulated, DVs are measured
What is the presumed cause of the dependent variable in experimental research? The independent variable
What is the definition of experimental research? The appropriate method for measuring cause and effect relationships
What is a bivalent study? The type of experiment where the effect of 2 values of the independent variable on the dependent variable are studied
What is a multivalent study? Study of at least three values of the independent variable on the dependent variable; at least three values are presented to the participant
What is a parametric study? Study of the simultaneous effect of more than one independent variable on the dependent variable; second IV is “parameter”; allows researcher to look at several things in one experiment
What is developmental research? A type of descriptive research in which changes in behavior are measured over time
What is longitudinal research? Descriptive research that takes years to collect data
Example of developmental research: observe vocabulary development in kids exposed to cocaine prenatally (2 to 6 years)
Experimental research example: You want to lower your cholesterol level by 50 points, so you alter your diet by ONLY adding red rice yeast to the diet and measure in 2 months.
What is descriptive research? Type of research used to study group differences and group trends
What is a correlational study? A type of research where the relationship among two or more variables is examined to see if change in one can be predicted by observing change in another
What is an active variable? A variable that can be manipulated; Example: Tone intensity, vocal sound quality, sound production
What is a continuous variable? A variable that is measured along a continuum; usually reflects rank order. Examples: tone intensity, severity of stuttering
What is an attribute variable? A variable that cannot be manipulated; Examples: age, gender, medical history
What is a categorical variable? A variable that cannot be measured on a continuum;one that has two or more categories, but there is no intrinsic ordering to the categories. For example, gender (male and female), and hair color (blonde, brunette, etc.)the categories can't be ranked.
Define extraneous variable: has unintended influence on the results; Researcher must try to control for these variables Example: Child is distracted when parent enters the room
What is the definition of Comparative Research? Research that allows comparisons of performance of two or more participants at one time to draw some conclusions about them
Example of Comparative Research: Vocabulary development in a group of kids who were and were not exposed to cocaine prenatally
What is the definition of a retrospective study? A study that is designed and completed after data has been collected (i.e., the researchers examine data already on file study performance)
What is the method of authority? A way of knowing based on a person’s or group’s perceived general authority. “Its on the governments website, so it must be true”…
What is the method of intuition? A way of knowing based on pure rationalism or the a priori method; relies on use of pure reason based on prior assumptions that are considered self-evident with little or no consideration given to role of experience in the acquisition of the knowledge.
What is the method of science? A way of knowing gained from scientific research that is controlled impartial, empirical, systematic, etc.; guided by theory and hypotheses; Most powerful and objective way to gain new knowledge
What is the method of tenacity? A way of knowing which is based on information that has been passed down and/or repeated so often that it becomes lore and is perceived as fact.
What is Determinism? Philosophical assumption that the universe is lawful
What is Empiricism? Philosophical doctrine that knowledge is gained through experience and evidence; empiricists use evidence from particular cases to make inferences about general principles; essential for sound research.
What is Epistemology? The study of the nature and foundation of knowledge
What is Applied Research? Research that has the goal of solving a particular current problem
What is Basic Research? Research that is interested in furthering the base of knowledge
What is research design? Specific set of tactics used to help achieve the research strategy; Helps answer research questions and control for variance; Exs. between-subjects, participatory.
What is Between-subjects design? A study in which the performance of different groups is measured and a comparison is made between the groups
What is Within-subjects design A type of study in which there is one group of participants exposed to both levels of an IV; comparison is made of the participants in both situations
What is a single-subject research design? Studies applied to one subject or a small number of subjects whose scores are evaluated separately (not averaged together)
What is Internal Validity? The degree to which a study does what it says it does; does it answer the research question and provide credible evidence?
What is External Validity? The degree to which the findings of a particular study can be generalized outside the confines of the study.
Subject Randomization (Between- subjects design) Important process of distributing subjects between control group and experimental group such that group equivalence is achieved; such that subjects have equal probability of winding up in either group.
Subject Matching (Between- subjects design) Technique for achieving group equivalence in which members of the experimental and control groups are assigned such that the group members are equivalent on all relevant extraneous variables known to be correlated with the DV.
What is a sequencing effect? Instance in which a subject's participation in a an earlier part of an experiment effects their performance in a subsequent part
What is sequence randomization? A method to reduce the sequencing effect in which researcher presents the experimental treatment conditions to the subject in random order.
What is counterbalancing? A technique to control/measure sequencing effects by determining all the possible sequences of treatments, then randomly assigning subjects to each sequence.
What is a withdrawal design? A type of single-subject research design in which the the researcher compares the subject's behavior when the IV is present with his/her behavior when he IV is absent.
What is a baseline segment? In a withdrawal design, a time segment during which behavioral observations are made across several sessions without intervention.
What is a treatment segment? In a withdrawal design, a time segment during which behavioral observations are conducted over several sessions of intervention.
what is a treatment withdrawal segment? In a withdrawal design, this method occurs when the intervention is withdrawn in order to see if the subject reverts back to baseline conditions. Gives and indication as to whether change can be attributed to the intervention.
what is reversal design? A type of single-subject research design in which the researcher pushes behavior back toward baseline by reinforcing an alternative behavior that is incompatible with the previously trained target behavior.
What is the benefit of a multiple baseline design? Helps diffuse threats to internal validity by providing intervention following different baselines sustained over different periods of time. Relationship bn IV and DV can be better established.
What is a Changing-Criterion design? Effect of IV is shown by systematically varying the performance criterion for the DV (The criterion for reinforcement changes).
Define Quantitative Research This type of research is all about quantifying relationships between variables. Examples: between subjects, within-subjects ,etc.
Define Qualitative Research This type of research study is primarily exploratory, focusing on generating useful hypotheses and identifying key variables for further research.
What is a sequential exploratory design? A type of design which is intended to explore relationships when study variables are not known, for example, to refine and test an emerging theory.
What is sequential explanatory design? Type of research design implemented to explain relationships and make sense of research results, especially when those results are unexpected.
What is a concurrent triangulation design? A type of design study in which data analysis is done separately and used to determine the extent to which the data confirm, cross-validate, corroborate (triangulate) study findings.
What is a concurrent nested design? A type of study whose purpose is to provide a broader perspective of the research topic or to study a variety of topics within a single study.
What factors can effect internal validity? History, maturation, reactive pretest,instrumentation, statistical regression, differential subject selection, attrition, and interaction of factors.
What is researcher reactivity? The behavior and reactions of the researcher with regard to how it might effect the research findings.
What factors can effect external validity? Generalizability, subject selection, interactive pretest,reactive arrangements, multiple-treatment interference,and transferability.
What is pilot research? Type of research conducted in the initial stages of experimental design on a small number of subjects to assess feasibility of conducting a full-fledged study.
With regard to internal validity, what is reactive pretest? A subject's test scores can be effected simply by having taking the same test earlier.
What is the definition of Statistical Regression? A phenomenon in which subjects who are selected on the basis of atypically low or high scores change on a subsequent test so that their scores get better (low scorer) or worse (high scorer) than they were originally.
With regard to internal validity, what is Differential Subject Selection? The process of selecting subjects to form experimental and control groups.
With regard to internal validity, what is attrition? This threat to internal validity refers to the differential loss of subjects between experimental and control groups or other comparison groups;also known as experimental mortality.
With regard to external validity, what is interactive pre-test? This threat to external validity concerns the degree to which a reactive pre-test may interact with an IV in determining the subject's performance on the DV. The subject's reaction may differ from someone's who hasn't been exposed to the pre-test.
What information does the Methods section provide? This section of a research article tells who/what was studied, materials used, and how they were used (i.e., the procedures), and the controls employed for internal/external validity.
What is the difference between "population" and "sample"? A ______________is any group of subjects a researcher is interested in studying, whereas a ____________is a subset of the above.
What are the considerations for determining sample size for a given research question? When trying to determine____________, the following must be considered: purpose of the study, the research design itself, existing research, generalizability, and variability of the attribute in question. (PREG-V)
What are the considerations for determining subject selection for a given research question? To determine _______: (a)Set clear/defensible criteria for group composition (b)no overlap of distinguishing variables(c) defined/defensible exclusion criteria d)are groups comparable on extraneous variables? (e)extreme scores present for any subjects?
What are the principles for protecting human subjects/participants in research projects? Respect, beneficence (maximize benefits & minimize harm), and justice
What are the requirements for informed consent? What does a potential subject need to understand? A potential subject must have knowledge of the nature and purpose of a given study in order to give a researcher ________ ________.
Name some basic components found on a consent form. Purpose of the research,description of materials, description of risks, description of benefits, privacy statement, researcher identity & contact info, "participation is voluntary and can be withdrawn at anytime"
How is "privacy" different from "confidentiality"? ________ refers to person's ability to control when and under what conditions others can access their info. _________ refers to the ability of others to tie specific info or data to a given individual.
Describe the Nominal level of measurement. Mutually exclusive categories or named groupings; Exs. pass/fail criterion on screening test, types of dysfluency (prolongation vs. repetition).
Describe the Ordinal level of measurement. Mutually exclusive categories or named groupings + ranks or ordered levels; Exs. ranked severity groups (mild, moderate, severe)
Describe the Interval level of measurement. Mutually exclusive categories or named groupings, ranks or ordered levels + equiv. of units throughout scale; Exs.Standard scores on behavioral tests (PPVT, TOLD, CELF); Fahrenheit & Celsius temps.
Describe the Ratio level of measurement. Mutually exclusive categories or named groupings, ranks or ordered levels, equiv. of units throughout scale, + equiv. ratios among scale values, & true 0 pt: Exs. Vowel duration, voice onset time, sound frequency
Why is knowing the level of measurement in a study important? ____________ are used to assign numerals to objects or events and are important in determining the appropriateness of procedures used to organize & analyze results of a study.
What does term reliability mean? refers to measurement precision and stability if same procedures are repeated.
What is a systematic error? This type of error recurs consistently each time study is repeated. Ex. improperly calibrated audiometer
What is an unsystematic error? This type of error occurs in unpredictable ways during repeated measurements. Ex. intermittent sound malfunction in an audiometer.
Name some sources of measurement error that may effect reliability Below are potential sources of what? Examinee characteristics, behavior of examiner-scorer, test content, time factors,situation factors.
What is the test-retest method? A measure of stability in which a complete repetition of the exact measurement found in a given study is done, then the two measurements are correlated to determine reliability.
What is the alternate or parallel forms method? Primary method for determining equivalence of measurement. Scores of two diff forms of a measure of the same attribute are correlated.
What does the split half method measure? Measures internal consistency of measurement; Items comprising a given measure are evenly divided in two then each is correlated for reliability.
What is inTERrater agreement? Measure of the level of variability among observers who score the same behaviors; agreement between observers is taken to mean that behavior changes are true and not a result of variability in scoring.
What is inTRArater agreement? Determined from measures made by one observer on two different ocassions.
Validity refers to what? This term refers to the "truthfulness" of a measurement.
What is content validity? Determines how well the test items sample the behavior/characteristic to be measured
What is criterion validity? The degree to which a measure correlates with a known indicator of the behavior or characteristic it is supposed to measure.
What is concurrent validity? Type of criterion validity; assessed when a measure and outside validating criterion are simultaneously administered. Ex. correlation of results from shorter version of a testing measure compared to results from longer version.
What is predictive validity? Type of criterion validity; assessed when measure used to predict some future behavior. Ex. SAT as predictor of how a kid will do in college.
What is construct validity? The degree to which a measure reflects some theoretical construct or explanation of the behavior or characteristic being measured.
What are the two most valuable properties that the critical researcher should look for in standardized/non-standardized test instruments. Reliability and validity--not popularity--are the most critical properties a researcher should look for when evaluating whether or not to use a particular _____________.
What is a non standardized test instrument? A measure that has not been standardized or published commercially. Critical to indicate reliability and validity of measurements made with these instruments.
What is the research protocol. Essentially, the layout of the steps of the research experiment; description of the tasks performed by the subjects and the manipulations of the IVs.
What are some properties one might find in a poor test environment? Poor lighting, distracting noise, inappropriate stimuli, interruptions, etc.
What constitutes an acceptable test environment? The ___________ should be appropriate to the task and kept constant across participants to avoid contamination of measurements.
What are subject instruction effects? Threats to internal validity due to subject having difficulty understanding instructions. Exs: An ASL-using hearing impaired person given instructs in signed English; in general, inadequate, poorly worded, or inapprop. instructions for the subjects.
What is observer bias? Human error (due to knowledge, expectations, etc.)in measuring or rating samples of behavior of different subjects or of subjects participating in different experimental conditions.
With respect to observer bias, what is noninteractional effect? Occurs when the observer does not actually affect the subject's performance, but does affect the recording of the subject's behavior (by influence of their expectations for ex).
What is an observer effect? Effect with regard to observer bias in which systematic errors in observation of behavior occur
What is an interpreter effect? Effect with regard to observer bias in which systematic errors in interpretation of behavior occurs.
What is an intentional effect? Effect with regard to observer bias in which dishonesty or carelessness in recording data occurs
What is an interactional effect? Occurs when the observer's interaction with the subject actually changes that subject's behavior in the experiment.
What are the five factors associated with human observers that may influence the behavior of research subjects? (1)Biosocial attributes (race, sex, age),(2)psychosocial attributes (anxiousness, hostility) (3)situational variables (prior experience, familiarity w/subj (4) modeling effects (5) self-fulfilling prophecies
What is a blind technique? Method of controlling experimenter bias in which the experimenter knows the hypothesis but does not know in which treatment condition the subject is in.
What is InTERexperimenter Reliability? When two or more experimenters make a consistent measurement.
What is InTRAexperimenter Reliability? The consistency of one experimenter in remaking a particular measurement.
What is the difference between a statistic and a parameter? A statistic is a numeric description of sample, whereas a parameter is a numeric description of a population. It follows that stats are estimates of parameters because entire populations are rarely studied.
Created by: wyhanes