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Chomsky's language assumptions innate-not a blank source and there is a universal grammar
Language Competence knowledge of language rules i.e. What you KNOW
Performance use of language in real situations i.e. How you USE language
Tip-of-the-Tongue phenomenon know the word but can't retrieve it
Way TOTs are studied journals of self report or induced
Associative chain theory word 1-word 2-word 3- word 4-word 5
Skinner's language assumptions learned, based on stimulus-response associations, and are shaped by imitation and reinforcement
Chomsky's arguments against Skinner no way we are exposed to all possible sentences, can be given a grammatical sentence even though you have never been exposed to those words associated with each other and understand it, and it is creative
Principle findings of TOT studies can often report physical aspects of the word, will produce words w/ similar sounds, can usually report semantic info about the name/word, will produce words with similar meanings, and phonemic/semantic cues can help resolve TOT
Anomia word finding problems, difficulty retrieving even common words and with several words in the same sentence
Linguistic knowledge mostly tacit knowledge we use and learn without any conscious effort
Phonology knowledge of fundamental sound unit and legal combos (stape vs. sbape)
Phonemes smallest unit of meaningful sounds
Morphology knowledge of meaning units
Morphemes smallest units of meaning
Four types of Morphemes free vs. bound and inflectional vs. derivational
Free Morphemes can stand alone as words
Bound Morphemes must be combined with other morphemes
Inflectional Morphemes changes tense, number, or degrees
Derivational Morphemes changes meaning
Count Nouns can be counted; can be preceded by many/few, #s, NOT by much/less
Mass Nouns cannot be counted; can be preceded by much/less, NOT by many/few or #s
Parts of Speech nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and articles
Open-class/Content words holds the content of the sentence and takes in new words all the time (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs)
Closed-class/Function words holds the content of the sentence together and it is rare to see any changes made (prepositions, conjunctions, articles and pronouns)
Types of Pronouns personal, demonstrative, and interrogative
Types of verbs primary and auxiliary
Surface structure surface arrangement of the parts
Deep structure underlying structure that conveys meaning
Iconic memory visual sensory store with large capacity (~9-12 letters) but decays quickly (~500msec)
Echoic memory auditory sensory store with smaller capacity (5 items) but lasts longer (3-4 sec); the “Huh? Oh yea…” phenomenon
Miller’s Magic Number 7 +/- 2
STM vs. WM STM is storage capacity and WM is storage and processing capacity
Three parts of Baddeley’s WM model Phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and central executive
Phonological Loop holds verbal info.; anything you can put a label on and say (Ex. word list, my last sentence, telephone #)
Visuospatial Sketchpad holds visual/spatial info.; pure pictures (Ex. roatating letter “B”, Simon game, how to get to MU)
Central Executive coordinates and divides WM resources
Tulving’s memory systems Episodic, semantic, and procedural
Episodic memory personally experienced events; you personally saw, heard, felt; these memories are not always reliable and often change over time; accuracy of memory goes down over time but confidence of memory increases; related by time & place
Semantic memory general world knowledge i.e. language knowledge, concept and category knowledge, functional knowledge; NOT time or place related but is highly relied on; Info is critical to survive!
Procedural memory skill knowledge i.e. how to use a fork and knife, how to dress yourself and tie your shoes; these skills were hard to learn but are now easy; repetition transfers it into procedural knowledge (Ex. going on autopilot)
Stroke may have impaired semantic memory (lang. probs.) but intact episodic memory
Amnesia have impaired episodic memory but their semantic & procedural memory is often intact
Dementia have impaired episodic and semantic memory, but their procedural memory is often intact
Serial process one thing at a time
Parallel process everything at the same time
Modular process operate independently
Interactive processes interact and affect each other
Automatic done with little effort; “easy”-you just do it!; response- you can’t control
Controlled requires attention and effort; “hard”-you work for it!; response- controlled process
Bottom-Up based on info from the stimulus (sounds or visual features)
Top-Down influenced by our knowledge, memories, and expectations
Created by: tpatten