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Unit 10 Study Guide


Zimmerman Note Arthur Zimmerman secretly proposed a German-Mexican alliance against the United States. It was intercepted and published, and made more Americans enter war.
Fourteen Points Woodrow Wilson's proposal to ensure peace after WWI calling an end to secret treaties, widespread arms reduction, national self-determination, and new league of nations.
League of Nations An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace. Promotes collective security
Committee on Public Information Created by George Creel, it gave info and propaganda and controlled by the government Promoted people to enter war to end all other wars. make the world safe for democracy.
Espionage Act of 1917 Law which punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty during WW1
Schenck V. United States A supreme court decision that upheld the Espionage and Sedition Acts, saying that freedom of speech could be curtailed when it posed a "clear and present danger"
War Industries Board Created by Bernard Baruch, government takes over industrial production but program is voluntary.
I.W.W. International Workers of the World, the Wobblies. part of the socialist movement, spoke against WWI saying it's big business' war.
Chicago Race Riot black populations expanded to white neighborhoods, and found jobs as strikebreakers, and they were triggered by an indecent at a beach lead to black and white gangs killing fifteen whites and 23 blacks
19th Amendment Gave women the right to vote.
Chateau-Thierry 1st significant engagement of American troops in WWI
Meuse-Argonne Offensive General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing led American troops in this effort to cut the German railroad lines supplying the western front.
Treaty of Versailles Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to repair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt
Article X Part of the Treaty of Versailles, said American military committed to foreign war. Republicans object to this.
Election of 1920 Cox (democrat) pro treaty, Harding (republican) anti treaty and winner of election, and Wilson the prophet and idealist, and poor pragmatist loser
Return to Normalcy After World War I 1919-20s, when Harding was President, the US and Britain returned to isolationism. The US economy "boomed" but Europe continued to struggle. It was the calm before the bigger storm hit: World War II
Bolshevik Revolution The second stage of the Russian Revolution when Lenin and his Bolshevik party seized power and established a communist state.
Red Scare period in US when there was a suspicion of communism and fear of widespread infiltration of communists in the US government.
K.K.K. Targets African Americans, Catholics and Jews. Part of the nativist isolationism of the 1920's.
Emergency Quota Act of 1921 an emergency immigration law was passed by congress in 1921. it limited the number of people admitted from eastern and southern Europe.
18th Amendment Prohibited the manufacture, sale and transportation of alcohol.
Volstead Act Bill passed by Congress to enforce the language of the 18th Amendment. This bill made the manufacture and distribution of alcohol illegal within the borders of the United States.
Scopes Monkey Trial 1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism
Scientific Management a management theory using efficiency experts to examine each work operations and find ways to minimize the time needed to complete it
KDKA The first commercial radio station in America (in Pittsburgh).
Jazz Singer 1st talkie in America. 1st movie in American History
Flappers Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion
Harlem Renaissance a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Adkins V. Children's Hospital Supreme Court case that invalidated Muller v. Oregon, declaring that since women now had the vote, they were equal to men and undeserving of special protection
Five Power Treaty Agreement that reduced naval strength and established a ratio of warships among the major shipping powers
Nine Power Treaty 1922. Treaty that was essentially a reinvention of the Open Door Policy. All members to allow equal and fair trading rights with China. Signed by US, Japan, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal.
Kellogg-Briand Pact Sentimental triumph of the 1920s peace movement, it linked 62 nations in the supposed "outlawry of war"
Dawes Plan Negotiated that in 1924 to reschedule German reparations payments. It stabilized the German currency.
Teapot Dome a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
McNary-Haugen Bill Guaranteeing minimum prices for agricultural goods, vetoed by Coolidge.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Passed to protect domestic production from foreign competitors. This tariff raised the tax on imports to its heights level- 60%
Hawley-Smoot Tariff The highest protective tariff in the peacetime history of the US
Black Tuesday Dark day where over 16,410,000 shares of stock were sold on Wall Street. Helped bring Great Depression.
Rugged Individualism The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Herbert Hoover.
RFC Reconstruction Finance Corporation, a government lending agency established by Hoover administration to assist insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, railroads, and local governments.
Bonus Army known as the Bonus Expeditionary Force (BEF), group of 20,000 veterans marched on Washington to demand immediate payment of bonuses earned during WWI. General Douglas MacArthur dispersed them.
Hoover-Stimson Doctrine This said that the United States would not recognize any territorial acquisitions that were taken over by force. (This doctrine is related to Japanese aggression in Manchuria in 1931)
Woodrow Wilson 28th president of the US, known for WWI leadership, created Federal Reserve, FTC, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage, Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations
Jeanette Rankin First woman to serve in Congress. Suffragist and pacifist, voted against US involvement in WWI and WWII.
George Creel head of the Committee on Public Information 1917 which was allegedly formed to combat wartime rumors by providing authoritative info. It served as propaganda agency proclaiming the government's version of reality and discrediting those who questioned that
Eugene V. Debs Part of the Socialist movement. Spoke out against WWI, saying it's big business' war
Carrie Chapman Catt Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter, became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspired speaker and a brilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.
Herbert Hoover Head of the Food Administration., Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
Blackjack Pershing was a general officer in the United States Army. He is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to the highest rank ever held in the United States Army—General of the Armies
Alvin York killed 25 machine-gunners and captured 132 German soldiers when his soldiers took cover; won Congressional Medal of Freedom
Henry Cabot Lodge Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
A. Mitchell Palmer Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be communist and un-American; he helped to increase the Red Scare
Warren G. Harding president who called for a return to normalcy following WWI
Hiram Wesley Evans A KKK leader after William J. Simmons that helped revive the KKK and make it about more than just hating African Americans
Al Capone United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)
John T. Scopes Stood trial for teaching evolution in Tennessee, Agreed to challenge the law banning the teaching of evolution in public schools. Believed that it was denying his right to personal and religious freedom
Andrew Mellon the Secretary of the Treasury during the Harding Administration. He felt it was best to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He believed in trickle down economics.
Henry Ford United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production. Created Model T and Model A
Charles Lindbergh United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)
Margaret Sanger United States nurse who campaigned for birth control and planned parenthood
Alice Paul Leads White House Demonstration, head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority.
Langston Hughes African American poet who described the rich culture of African American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
Marcus Garvey Started Back to Africa Movement. He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business
Albert Fall The Secretary of the Interior who accepted bribes from an oil company and started the Teapot Dome Scandal.
Charles Forbes Harding's Secretary of Veterans Affairs who sold supplies from veterans hospitals to companies in exchange for bribes. Also gave private businesses government contracts for bribes.
Harry Sinclair Oilman involved in the Teapot Dome scandal; he bribed Albert Fall with about $300,000. He was sentenced to several months in jail for "shadowing" jurors and for refusing to testify before a Senate committee.
Calvin Coolidge Restores faith and confidence in the government. "Business of America is business", "The man who builds a factory builds a temple", elected Vice President and succeeded as 30th President of the United States when Harding died in 1923
Al Smith Governor of New York four times, and was the Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. He was the first Roman Catholic and Irish-American to run for President as a major party nominee. He lost the election to Herbert Hoover.
Created by: jqnguy3n