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SGU: Acids and Bases

Biochem: Acids and Bases

QuestionAnswer
What is an autosomal dominant disorder and give two examples? heterozygous state – one normal and one diseased allele. Ex. Osteogenesis imperfect and marfan syndrome
What is an autosomal recessive disorder and give two examples? both alleles are mutant. Ex. Sickle cell, cystic fibrosis and Tay Sach’s
What is an x-linked disease and give examples? in males where the x chromosome carries the mutant allele. Hemophilia, Lesch-Nyhan, Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
What is the distribution of total body water in the ECF and ICF? ECF=33%, ICF=66%
What is the body compartment with 75% of ECF water? Interstitial fluid
What constituents are found in blood? Plasma, cells
What are the major ECF electrolytes? Na and Cl
What are the major ICF electrolytes? K and HPO4
Define osmolality. osmolality of a fluid is proportional to the total [] of all dissolved molecules
What is the clinical significance of osmolality during hyperglycemia? water moves out of the ICF of neurons and into the ECF causing unconsciousness.
Patient X has liver or renal disease, severe burns and Kwashiorikor. What can this patient have? edema
When does a buffer exhibit maximum buffering capacity? when the pH (of a solution)=pKa (of buffer)
When the pH of a solution is lower than the pKa of a buffer what will be favoured, the weak acid or conj base? weak acid
What is the ratio of [acid]:[base] 1 unit below the pKa of a buffer? 10:1
What are the 3 steps involved in CO2 transport to the lungs? 1. Metabolic process produce CO2 with enters RBC 2.carbonic anhydrase converts CO2 into H2CO3 3. H2CO3 donates a proton to Hb causing release of O2
What three process does the kidney do to maintain acid-base balance? reabsorption of filtered bicarbonate, formation of new bicarbonate and secretion of H+ by phosphate pathway and ammonia pathway.
What are the normal levels of PCO2 and HCO3? PCO2=38-42 & HCO3=22-25
What can cause respiratory acidosis? Lung disease, airway obstruction, chest wall muscle disease, opiods and anaesthetics.
What happens to pH, PCO2 and HCO3 respectively during respiratory acidosis? decr, incr, normal
Patient X is trying to compensate for respiratory acidosis, what are the blood gas measurements for pH, PCO2, and HCO3 respectively? Decr, incr, incr
What happens to pH, PCO2 and HCO3 respectively during respiratory alkalosis? incr, decr, normal
Patient X is trying to compensate for respiratory alkalosis, what are the blood gas measurements for pH, PCO2, and HCO3 respectively? incr, decr, decr
What happens to pH, PCO2 and HCO3 respectively during metabolic acidosis? decr, decr, decr
Patient X is trying to compensate metabolic acidosis, what are the blood gas measurements for pH, PCO2, and HCO3 respectively? decr, decr, decr
What happens to pH, PCO2 and HCO3 respectively during metabolic alkalosis? incr, incr, incr
Patient X is trying to compensate for metabolic alkalosis, what are the blood gas measurements for pH, PCO2, and HCO3 respectively? incr, incr, incr
Created by: mnoronha
 

 



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