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SGU: Enzymes

Biochem: Enzymes and Enzymology

What configuration are amino acids found in (R or L)? L
In what cellular compartment does fatty acid, cholesterol and triacylglycerol synthesis take place? Cytosol
In what cellular compartment does fatty acid beta-oxidation take place? mitochondria
In what cellular compartment does ketone body formation take place? liver mitochondria
What are the properties of an enzyme active site? 1. 3-dimensional cleft 2. Binds substrate with weak attractions 3. Specific for substrate
What are the factors that influence enzyme reaction rate? pH, substrate concentration, temperature
What is a holoenzyme? an apoenzyme with its coenzyme
What is the coenzyme required during the synthesis of pyruvate from lactate? NAD+ is required
What are the four way regulation of enzymes can be acheived? 1. Concentration of substrate or products 2. Modulation of enzyme concentration 3. Covalent modification of enzymes 4. Modulation of a metabolic pathway
Describe enzyme regulation via concentration of substrates/products. When substrate concentration is low small changes in substrate will affect velocity of reation. Too much product can inhibit enzyme.
What is an example of enzyme regulation via concentration of substrates/products. formation of glucose-6-phosphate from glucose.
How are enzymes regulated by modification of enzyme concentration? By induction or repression of enzyme synthesis OR regulated enzyme degradation.
What happens when blood glucose levels falls too low? What type of enzyme regulation is this? low blood glucose induces glucagon to promote gluconeogenesis enzymes to synthesis glucose
How is enzyme activity regulated by covalent modification? phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and proteolytic activation
What is the function of enteropeptidase? cleaves the zymogen trypsinogen to trypsin.
What are the types of modulation of metabolic pathway regulation of enzyme activity? feedback and feedforward regulation, compartmentation of enzymes/substrates
What is homotropic allosteric regulation? when the substrate causes cooperative binding of more substrate.
What is heterotropic allosteric regulation? when another molecule binds to the enzyme at a place different than the active site
what kind of curve to allosteric enzymes show? sigmoidal curve
Does feedback/feedforward regulation change K0.5 or Vmax? K0.5
Does competitive inhibition change Km or Vmax? Km
Does noncompetitive inhibition change Km or Vmax? Vmax
Give an example of competitive inhibition. the action of statins on HMG-CoA reductase (used for cholesterol synthesis)
On a Lineweaver-Burk plot where is Vmax? y-intercept=1/Vmax
What kind of regulation does DFP exhibit of acetylcholine esterase? irreversible
How does aspirin prevent blood clotting? It inhibits COX which produces thromoxane and prostacyclin. Thromboxane needed by platelets=stimulate blood clotting and prostacyclin needed by endothelial cells=prevent blood clotting. Endothelial produce COX whereas platelets cannot.
Created by: mnoronha