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Endocrine System: 1

Classes of Hormones (3) Protein Based: glycoproteins, polypeptides Biogenic Amines (tyrosine based): catecholamines, thyroid hormone Steroids (cholesterol based): cortisol, sex steroids
Examples of Glycoprotein Hormones Examples of Polypeptide Hormones FSH, LH, TSH Oxytocin, ADH, Insulin, GH, PTH
Synthesis and Transport of Steroids Bind to hydrophilic transport proteins and travel to target tissue where it unbinds and enters target cells. Most abundant binding protein is albumin.
Synthesis and Transport of Thyroid Hormone These nonpolar hormones bind to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) which is specific to T3 and T4.
Requirements for Proper Hormone Activity There must be receptors on the target cells because these are hormone specific. When the hormone binds to the receptor it causes a reaction that changes the activity of the target cell.
Membrane Receptors Require What Type of Hormone? These receptors are nonpolar and are used by protein/peptide based hormones in order to pass through the cell membrane.
3 Types of Hormone Interactions Synergistic, Permissive, Antagonistic
What do Synergestic Interactions Do and Give an Example Synergistic interactions occur when more than one hormone produces the same effects at the target call and their combined effects are amplified. Example: Glucagon and Epinephrine
What do Permissive Interactions Do and Give an Example Permissive interactions occur when one hormone cannot exert its full effects without another hormone being present. The first hormone increases responsiveness and activity of another hormone. Example: Reproductive and Thyroid Hormones
What do Antagonistic Interactions Do and Give an Example Antagonistic interactions occure when one hormone opposes the action of another hormone. Example: Glucagon and Insulin; Calcitonin and PTH
Hormone Interaction with Nucleic Receptors The receptor protein is located inside the nucleus and binds with nonpolar hormones (steroids and T4). Causes the DNA binding site to be exposed and activates gene transcription.
Hormone Interaction with Cytoplasmic Receptors Receptor protein is located in the cytoplasm and binds to nonpolar hormones (steroids). Allows for the molecule to translocate to the nucleus and eventually leads to gene transcription.
Hormone Interaction with Membrane Receptors Receptors are located on the cell membrane and bind with polar, hydrophilic hormones such as catecholamines and proteins/peptides
Process of Second Messenger Activation of Catecholamines and Proteins (1st Half) Hormone is the 1st messenger and binds to the receptor to activate the G complex. G complex activates as GDP is displaced and GTP binds. G complex then binds to adenylate cyclase which generates the 2nd messenger cAMP from ATP.
Process of Second Messenger Activation of Catecholamines and Proteins (2nd Half) cAMP that was generated from ATP then activates protein kinases which is a form of protein phosphoylation. This triggers responses in the cell and allows for the hormone to be effective.
PIP2-Calcium Signaling Mechanism (1st Half) The hormone acts as the 1st messenger and binds to the receptor and causes it to change shape. The receptor binds to the G protein which is activated by the removal of GDP and the addition of GTP. The complex then binds and activates phospholipase C.
PIP2-Calcium Signaling Mechanism (2nd Half) Activated phospholipase C breaks down phospholipid PIP2 to DAG and IP3. DAG is the 2nd messenger and activates a protein kinase similiar to cAMP. IP3 triggers an increase in intracellular Ca2+ which binds and activates calmodulin.
Definition of Up-Regulation Up-regulation occurs when target cells form more receptors in response to rising blood levels of the specific hormones to which they respond (not enough stimulation).
Definition of Down-Regulation Down-regulation occurs when there is a loss of receptors and prevents target cells from overreacting to high hormone levels (over stimulation).
Components of the Pituitary Gland Pituitary is part of the diencephalon and contains 2 lobes: the anterior lobe, which is made from glandular tissue derived from oral epithelial tissue; the posterior lobe, which is made of nerve tissue.
Adenohypophysis (Anterior Pituitary) Oral epithelial tissue (Rathke's Pouch) pinched off and migrates to diencephalon. Secretes trophic (polar) hormones to the blood where it stimulates target cells. Examples: TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, GH, PRL
Neurohypophysis (Posterior Pituitary) Consists of the posterior lobe and infundibulum. Uses neurons to release ADH and oxytocin which are produced in the hypothalamus. Nerve stimulation leads directly to hormone secretion. Supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, hypothalamo-hypophyseal tracts.
Hypothalamic Control of the Anterior Pituitary Amino acid/peptide based hormones enter the AP from hypothalamic neurons. These hormones are either releasing or inhibiting in function. Released into primary capillary plexus and enter the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system.
5 Types of Releasing Hormones and What Product They Release TRH- releases TSH, CRH- releases ACTH, GnRH- releases FSH and LH, GHRH- releases GH, PRH- releases PRL (prolactin)
2 Types of Inhibiting Hormones and What Product They Inhibit PIH (dopamine)- inhibits PRL, GHIH (somatostatin)- inhibits GH and TSH secretion
Negative Feedback Control Most hormones are regulated by negative feedback. Hormone secretion is triggered by some stimulus; as hormone levels rise, they cause target organ effects and inhibit furhter hormone release
Postitive Feedback Control Increase in one hormone leads to an increased amount of secretion of the same or another hormone. Example: Increase in Estrogen is followed by an increase in LH
Structure of the Thyroid Gland Consists of 2 lobes connected by an isthmus. Hollow follicles are made of simple cuboidal epithelium. These follicles are filled with colloid which is made by thyroglobulin.
Hormones of the Thyroid Gland Thyroid Hormones- T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (triiodothyronine). T3 is the most active but T4 is most produced. Main function is to increase metabolic rate.
Hormones of the Thyroid Gland Calcitonin which is used to lower blood calcium levels. This hormone is produced by parafollicular cells (C cells). Calcitonin inhibits osteoclasts and promotes excretion of Ca2+. It is an ANTAGONIST with PTH.
Iodine-Deficiency Goiter Disease of the Thyroid Gland. Caused by a lack of iodine and can't produce T3, T4 hormones. Can be cured by taking iodine or thyroxine.
Cretinism (Congenital Hypothyroidism) Disease of the Thyroid Gland. Occurs in infants and is due to low amounts of thyroid hormone. Can initially seem normal due to mothers T4. T3 and T4 are essential for proper neural and skeletal growth and metabolism.
Myxedema Disease of the Thyroid Gland. Occurs in adults due to low amounts of thyroid hormone. Causes edema, lethargy, mental sluggishness, and cold sensitivity.
Graves' Disease Disease of the Thyroid Gland. Is a result from hypersecretion of thyroid hormone. Females who smoke are the most likely to get this disease. Side effects are exophthalamos (eye bulging) and a goiter. Commonly treated with radioactive Iodine.
Structure of the Parathyroid Gland Consists of 4 separate glands on teh posterior surface of the thyroid. Made of oxyphil cells (unknown function) and chief cells (secrets PTH).
Hormones of the Parathyroid Gland Parathyroid Hormone (PTH): elevates blood calcium levels via osteoclasts. Is an ANTAGONIST with calcitonin. Negative feedback regulation (increase blood Ca2+ levels causes a deacrease of PTH; decrease blood Ca2+ levels causes an increase of PTH).
Structure of the Pancreas Organ that is made of exocrine cells (acinar cells which produce digestive enzymes) and endocrine cells (islets)
Insulin Hormone of the Pancreas. Causes a decrease in blood glucose levels and is secreted from B-cells of islets. Insulin deficient leads to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Regulated by feedback inhibition
Glucagon Hormone of the Pancreas. Increases blood glucose levels and is made of a-cells of islets. Allows for glucose to be mobilized from fatty acids. Deficiency leads to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).
Somatostatin Hormone of the Pancreas. Is made of delta cells of the islets and inhibits a and b cells around islets. Also inhibits the secretion of GI hormones and GH.
Structure of the Adrenal Glands Glands that are enclosed in a capsule and has an adrenal cortex which is made of glandular tissue that surrounds the central adrenal medulla, which is made of nervous tissue and is part of the sympathetic nervous system.
First Zone of the Adrenal Cortex Zona Glomerulosa- produces mineralocorticoids. Ex: Aldosterone-controls mineral levels especially Na+ and promotes retention. Aldosterone is vital for survival
Second Zone of the Adrenal Cortex Zona Fasiculata- produces glucocorticoids. Ex: cortisol/hydrocortisone- controls metabolism of glucose and proteins (gluconeogenesis).
Addison's Disease Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids. Results in an imbalance of Na+/K+. Symptoms consist of hypotenstion, weakness, bronzing of the skin from melanin.
Cushing's Syndrome Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids. Symptoms consist of hyperglycemia, hypertension, weakness, edema, fat deposition
Third Zone of the Adrenal Cortex Zona Reticularis: produces androgens and some cortisols. Ex: DHEA- male hormone that is the most abundant adrenal steroid hormone in blood around age 20s.
Congential Adrenanl Hyperplasia (CAH)/ Adenogenital Syndrome (AGS) Disease that is caused by the hypersecretion of DHEA. Symptoms include premature genital growth and maturation.
Created by: kjohnson316



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