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DBConceptsCh3

Structured Query Language

QuestionAnswer
use to add, modify, & drop columns & constraints ALTER TABLE statement
organization that creates & publishes SQL standards American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
can be used to assign column name to one that has no name, in SELECT statement AS keyword
function to sort order of output, in ORDER BY clause, as ascending ASC keyword
wildcard character to represent 1/more unspecified characters; in Access asterisk (*)
calculates the average of values found in a specific column of each group; commonly used SQL function; can be used as category on which to sort AVG
statement of policy in business that restricts ways in which data can be inserted, updated, or deleted in database business rule
can be any of following: restrict, no action, cascade, set to null, or set to default; means same change should be made to related column in specified table CASCADE keyword
list of values that limits what values are valid for the column; example, you can specify only the values 1 or 2 are valid CHECK constraint
identifies table constraints; can be used to implement various constraints CONSTRAINT keyword
in SQL, function that counts number of row in query result, regardless of column data type; built-in function COUNT
SQL command used to create database relations; shows how to define primary keys of table by using a table constraint CREATE TABLE statement
language used to describe processing of database; used to create & alter database structures data definition language (DDL)
language used to describe processing of database; used to query & modify data base components data manipulation language (DML)
language for defining & processing database intended to be embedded in programs written in another language data sublanguage
can be used to set initial values DEFAULT keyword
used to remove rows from a table; can remove one or more rows with a single command DELETE command
function to sort order of output, in ORDER BY clause, as descending DESC keyword
determines how many unique values exist in column; can be used to automatically eliminate duplicates DISTINCT keyword
used to remove database objects like tables, users, indexes, and constraints DROP statement
original join operation; sometimes referred to as inner join or equijion
language whose tags can be extended by document designers Extensible Markup Language (XML)
specifies conditions for grouping rows when determining query results, to group by common values; part of SQL SELECT statement GROUP BY clause
specifies conditions used to determined which rows are in groupings in GROUP BY clause; part of SQL SELECT statement HAVING clause
will start by number M & increase by increment of N, for each additional row; exact techniques used to define surrogate key sequences vary from DBMS-DBMS, consult docs for specific product used IDENTITY (M,N) phrase
relational algebra operation on 2 relations that produces a 3rd relation; in theory restrictions other than equality are allowed however such non-equal joins are not used in practice join operation
join operation is also known as inner join
allows you to add 1/more rows to an existing table INSERT statement
can be used in WHERE clause to search for values that are not NULL IS NOT NULL phrase
can be used in WHERE clause to search for null values IS NULL keyword
can be used for joins; rows that do not match join conditions do not appear in results JOIN...ON syntax
used with JOIN...ON syntax in order to join any rows except those on left side LEFT keyword
returns largest value found in specific column in group MAX
calculates smallest value found in specific column in group MIN
not necessary to cascade updated to referenced primary key NO ACTION keyword
to select rows, in WHERE clause, that do not have a specified value; column must not be equal to all values in list NOT IN phrase
to select rows, in WHERE clause, that do not have a specified value NOT keyword
SQL expression to select impartial values, in WHERE clause; pattern matching operator NOT LIKE phrase
indicates that a value must be supplied when a new row is created NOT NULL constraint
indicates that null values are allowed; means row can be created without a value for this column/row NULL constraint
shows what action should be taken if row in table deleted ON DELETE phrase
shows what action should be taken is a value of primary key in table changes ON UPDATE phrase
specifies how query results should be sorted when they are displayed; part of SQL SELECT statement ORDER BY clause
join in which all rows of table appear in resulting relation, regardless of whether they have a match in join condition outer join
wildcard character used to represent series of unspecified characters; SQL; used to represent 1/more characters in a pattern percent sign (%)
style of query interface, 1st developed by IBM but now used by other vendors, that enables users to express queries by providing examples of results they seek Query by Example (QBE)
wildcard character to represent single unspecified character question mark (?)
used with JOIN...ON syntax in order to join any rows except those on right side RIGHT keyword
any of the functions, COUNT, SUM, AVG, MAX, OR MIN, in SQL SQL built-in functions
basic structure of SQL query SQL SELECT/FROM/WHERE framework
virtual relation constructed from single SQL SELECT statement; have at most 1 multivalued path SQL view
data sublanguage for defining structure & processing of relational database; can be used as stand-alone query language, or embedded in application programs Structured Query Language (SQL)
SELECT statement that appears in WHERE clause of SQL statement; can be used to apply 2+ SQL statements subquery
in SQL, function that adds up set of numbers; totals values found in specific column in group; built-in function SUM
standard SQL wildcard character used with LIKE operator to represent single, unspecified character underscore symbol (_)
requires that every value entered into that column be unique, there cannot be any duplicated values UNIQUE constraint
modify values of existing data; UPDATE...SET command
represent unknown characters in a pattern wildcard characters
in most cases, data __ is a procedural language; such as, COBOL, C#, or Visual Basic sublanguage
data sublanguage is a(n) __ __ language because it contains only constructs for data definition & processing incomplete programming
all rows in left-handed relation appear in resulting relation left outer join
all rows in right-handed relation appear in resulting relation right outer join
SQL was developed by IBM and accepted as __ __ by ANSI national standard
can be nested within each other subqueries
question mark (?) is used in __ __ queries, to specify a single character Access 2010
underscore symbol (_) is used in __ __, to specify a single character standard SQL
asterisk (*) is used in __ __ queries to represent 1/more unspecified characters MS Access
percent sign (%) used in __ __ to specify multiple characters standard SQL
SQL not __ __ language, rather a data sublanguage complete programming
for SQL to obtain full programming language, its statements must be embedded in __ language, such as VBScript, or __ __ languages, such as Java/C# script; in programming
SQL statements can be submitted __, using a DBMS-supplied command prompt interactively
SQL endorsed as national standard by __, in 1986, 1989, & 1992 ANSI
SQL is __ oriented; developed prior to graphical user interfaces & only requires __ __ text; text processor
you cannot do everything with __ __ that you can do with SQL graphic tools
must use SQL to generate SQL statements __ in programming code dynamically
MS Access presents variant of Query by Example (QBE) graphic interface for general use, while using SQL behind the scenes
data definition language (DDL) & data manipulation language (DML) are both categories of SQL commands
MS Access defaults to __ version, instead of ANSI SQL-92 standard ANSI-89
ANSI-89 differs significantly from SQL-92, therefore some features of SQL-92 language will not work in MS Access
MS Access 2010, 2003, & 2007 versions do contain setting allowing you to use SQL-92 instead of default SQL-89
the one permanent workaround to SQL commands & clauses that do not work in MS Access ANSI-89 SQL is to choose to use SQL-92 syntax option
column name, column data type, & optionally, a constraint on column values three parts of column
SQL commands are __ __ case insensitive
standard in SQL is to make SQL commands __ uppercase
in SQL, this is done with the SELECT command data retrieval
in SQL, does not add new data or update existing data SELECT command
SELECT colum1, column2, ... columnN FROM table basic format of the SQL SELECT command
SELECT clause & FROM clause 2 parts of SELECT command
used to list columns & expressions you want displayed in output SELECT clause
each column in SELECT clause is followed by a(n) __ except the last column comma
used to list tables where columns exist; two/more tables will be listed when data selected from more than one table FROM clause
will always have SELECT clause & FROM clause SELECT statements
Most (but not all) databases that process SQL statements require statement to end with a(n) __ semi-colon
uses a semi-colon to end each SQL statement, but it is optional MS Access
one that displays all columns & all rows from single table; SQL uses the asterisk to indicate all columns easiest SELECT statement
is to preface tables with tbl code standard in Access
SELECT statement also allows to select any __ columns from table & present those columns in __ __ specific; any order
columns in SELECT clause do not have to be __ adjoining
enables use to retrieve only rows that meet a specific condition WHERE clause
SELECT colum1, column2, ... columnN FROM table WHERE clause format
used in a WHERE clause; is equals operator (=) most common operator
any text data in a database usually has to be __ __ matched exactly
to identify text data in SQL statement it will be made inside quotation marks
tell SQL processor to match this data exactly - including case quotation marks
comparing numbers is different than comparing text data
placed inside quotation marks text data
not placed inside quotation marks numeric data
a date must be placed with a pair of pound signs in Access
is usually more specific to the database software you are using comparing dates
would not be very useful if you could only select data based on the equality of two items data retrieval
important to be able to find rows using inequalities like greater than & less than
=, <, >, <=, >=, <>, !, LIKE, BETWEEN, IN, are all SQL Comparison Operators
match a list operator; use of WHERE clause to specify column should have one of a set of values IN
match range of values operator; used for ranges of values, in WHERE clause BETWEEN
SQL expression to select partial values, in WHERE clause; pattern matching operator; uses the % and the _ characters LIKE
not operator !
not equal to operator <>
grater than or equal to operator >=
less than or equal to operator <=
greater than operator >
less than operator <
equal to operator =
<, >, <=, >= all work just like the same operators in algebra
may be used to match on a specific list IN operator
are usual characters for implementing "pattern matching;" however, not all databases implement these % and _ characters
can be used to create compound WHERE clauses AND and OR keywords
use when condition that precedes it and condition that follows it must both be true AND keyword
use when either condition that precedes it or condition that follows it must be true OR keyword
tricky part of using AND and OR is when they are mixed in same WHERE clause
AND condition will be __ __ even if it is not listed __ in WHERE clause evaluated first; first
ideally you should use parenthesis (even when not required) to make your intention clear when using both AND and OR operators in WHERE clauses
using AND and OR operators can make SQL statements __ __ quite complex
can use as many __ __ as you wish AND operators
just as you can use multiple AND operators, you can use multiple OR operators
title assigned to each column in SQL query will be __ __ from database by default column name
can substitute a column name, for a(n) __ __ title, by using a column alias more descriptive
follows column it renames and is usually prefaced by keyword AS; can be more than 1 word; different database software applications implement it in slightly different ways column alias
must place double quotes around column alias that includes spaces; keyword AS is optional in Oracle
use [ and ] around column alias; keyword AS is required in Access
Access has __ __ of handling a column alias that is the same as the column heading; solution is to __ column name unique way; capitalize
in Access, you can __ __ of column heading without using an alias change case
without a(n) __ __ __, output will be displayed in an undetermined sequence ORDER BY clause
in most database software applications, order is by __ __ or __ that the row was added to table primary key; sequence
SELECT column1, column2, column3, ..., columnN FROM table ORDER BY expression1, expression2, ..., expression3; ORDER BY clause format
generally you list __ __ for expression1, expression2,...; but sequence can be based on other types of __, like arithmetic formulas and functions column name; expressions
column used in ORDER BY clause does __ __ to appear in SELECT clause not need
in ORDER BY clause, can also __ __ more than one expression sequence on
in ORDER BY clause, can __ __ expression instead of column sort on
in ORDER BY clause, order of output can be sorted into __ or __ __ descending; ascending sequence
in ORDER BY clause, the order options that the output can be sorted into is controlled with __ & __ __ ASC; DESC keywords
in ORDER BY clause, __ __ is the default order that output can be sorted into ascending sequence
ASC keyword in ORDER BY clause statement is __ optional
output, in ORDER BY clause, will default to __ if neither ASC, nor DESC, is specified ascending
SQL function can be used to complete some __ tasks predefined
exist for determining average of column's values, largest/smallest values in group, & sum of group SQL functions
one of most powerful features of relational database; feature that enables data integration w/minimal data redundancy linking/joining databases
selecting data from more than 1 table is usually (but not always) done by __ __ fields (columns) in 2 tables matching common
process of selecting data from multiple tables joining
SQL statement that joins two or more tables, creates a(n) __ table virtual
when joining tables, this displays data from multiple tables as if it were 1 table virtual table
virtual table exists only as __ __ SELECT statement; it does not exist __ in database result of; permanently
in any SELECT statement, can always __ column name w/table name in which it exists and a(n) __/__ preface; dot/period
providing table name and the dot, is often preferred because it __ to database software processing, the statement, to which __, that the columns belong to hints; table
without table name, software must look-up columns in __ __ entry for the correct table, to which the specified column belongs data dictionary
table name & period are often __, but situations arise in __ __ where it will be required optional; table join
there are two parts to __ __ in SELECT statement joining tables
all tables involved are listed in FROM clause, is __ __ of joining tables in SELECT statement 1st part
matching columns from each table are listed in WHERE clause, is __ __ of joining tables in SELECT statement 2nd part
matching columns, when joining tables in SELECT statement, are often a(n) __ key in 1 table & a(n) __ key in different table primary; foreign
when joining tables in SELECT statement, foreign key could also be in same table as primary key for a(n) __ __ unary relationship
matching of a common column accomplishes a(n) join
table joins enable us to treat __ table as one table, so we can retrieve information from __ combined; both
when joining tables, SELECT clause lists columns from both tables as if the two tables were really just one
to accomplish a join for more than 2 tables, you simply use __ keyword and create another __ clause AND; WHERE
you will always have __ __ expression in the WHERE clause, than you have tables to join one less
if you have N tables to to join, you will have __ expressions in WHERE clause N - 1
if same column name exists in 2 tables, you must __ that column name with the table name and a dot (.) so the SQL processor will know from which __ to access the column precede; table
when same column exists in 2 tables, preceding that column name with table name and dot (.); allows SQL processor to know from which table to access the column "qualifying" the column name
when we need to link tables that do not have common column, we will have to get the data we want by going through a(n) third table that relates to both
column alias will __ __ be used for group function column almost always
if column alias is not used, for group function column, column heading will default to __ or actual __ __ itself ExpressionN; group function
N is sequentially increasing number starting with 1; column heading default when group function column alias not used ExpressionN
one of the restrictions imposed, when using the GROUP BY, is columns in SELECT clause must either be used in a(n) __ __ or column must be __ __ GROUP BY clause group function; listed in
when using the COUNT group function, you have a(n) choice of columns
when using the COUNT group function, you have to be careful not to pick a column that allows null values
when using the COUNT group function, most database software will not count a column with a null value
easiest way to avoid null value problem, when using COUNT group function, is to pick __ __ since it can never be __ primary key; null
MAX and MIN functions can also be applied to __ columns date
when using MAX function with a date, __ __ is selected most current
when using MIN function with a date, the __ __ is selected oldest date
you cannot __ rows selected by group function using a WHERE clause restrict
group function __ __ in a WHERE clause can't appear
HAVING clause is similar to the WHERE clause, in that __ __ rows selected for query statement both restrict
requires one of arguments to be a group function & to have group function in SELECT clause HAVING clause
__ clause can use AND and OR keywords to construct compound conditions HAVING
HAVING clause can also use __ comparison operators __ __ can use (=, >, >=, <, <=, <>, BETWEEN, IN, LIKE, IS NULL) all; WHERE clause
MS Access does not allow for INSERT statements to be processed in the __ __ SQL window
__ INSERT adds one row simple
can add __ __ with INSERT, by using subquery multiple rows
INSERT INTO tablename (column1, column2, .... columnN) INSERT statement format
SQL standard provides quite a bit of __ for INSERT statement flexibility
longest form of the INSERT statement is to specify __ column names & data for __ column; data is in same order as column name all; every
in INSERT statement, it is possible to list columns in any order
in INSERT statement, if you list columns in any order you must match order of __ to __ of columns data; order
in INSERT statement, if you are listing data for __ __ you do not need to specify column __ at all; if all columns in same order as columns in table every column; names
will allow an INSERT statement without column names, when listing data for all columns in same order as columns in table relational databases
if there is a __ __ in a column, then you would leave in commas to represent its position but the value will be provided by database automatically (..., ,...) default value
another way to specify values for "all" columns of an INSERT, is to use __ for those columns in which you don't have a(n) __value NULL; data
in an INSERT statement, you can insert rows with limited data as long as you at least include data for __ __ and any columns that have __ __ constraints primary key; NOT NULL
In INSERT statements, when choosing to list each column into which a value will be placed, the __ of columns listed must match the number of __ provided; doesn't have to be in same sequence as table number; values
in INSERT statements, remember to enclose __ __ in single quotes; usually applies to dates also character data
common error is to forget to put dates in __ __ single quotes
common error to use __ __ where single quotes are required double quotes
numbers are __ enclosed in quotes never
format of dates is __ to relational database software used specific
09-NOV-2009, is __ __ for Oracle database for dates default format
when processing insert statement, all columns have a(n) __ __ (NUMBER, CHARACTER, VARCHAR2, DATE, ...) and the values in your INSERT statement __ __ type for the column data type; must match
when processing insert statement, you must provide a(n) __ for columns that have a NOT NULL constraint (this could be met with __ values assigned to the column) value; DEFAULT
when processing insert statement, you must provide data for __ __ __, which conceptually have NOT NULL & UNIQUE constraints primary key fields
when processing insert statement, you must provide data that passes any __ constraint CHECK
when processing insert statement, you must provide data that passes any __ constraint UNIQUE
when processing insert statement, you must provide data that passes any __ __ constraint FOREIGN KEY
primary key columns are automatically __ unique
data added to a table, via the INSERT command, must meet all constraints enabled on the table
when processing insert statement, __ may force you to load tables in a specific order constraints
when you convert from 1 system to another, implement new system, or integrate new business/organization into an existing organization constraints may force you to load tables in a specific order
correct strategy is to load the INSERT statements in the correct order, basically you need to load "parent" tables before "child" tables
when using DELETE, table __ __ __ regardless of how many rows you remove remains in place
simplest statement & also most dangerous as it deletes every row in a table DELETE FROM tablename;
generally you want to delete a specific row or several specific rows, which requires use of a WHERE clause
all of comparison operators used in WHERE clause of SELECT statement can be used in WHERE clause of DELETE statement
when you delete only a(n) __ __ __ in table, WHERE clause will specify the primary key (or a column that is a unique index) single specific row
when planning to run a DELETE statement that will delete multiple rows, good idea to run a query (SELECT statement) first with the WHERE condition to see what rows are selected before running the DELETE statement with the same WHERE clause
DELETE statement cannot violate a(n) foreign key constraint
basically a stored query; SQL SELECT statement that has been created & stored so that it can be run at any time view
view doesn't __ data or a table; merely allows you to __ existing data in different way create; view
improve security by limiting access to sensitive data, simplify user queries by predefining complex formulas, or improve database performance by predefining complex query to take advantage of database indexes are reasons view is usually created
improve security by limiting access to sensitive data most common use of a view
database administrator creates the view & sets security necessary to allow users to access the view while also setting security necessary to block access to original table
Microsoft Access views are called stored queries
view can enhance database performance under certain circumstances, which occurs when a frequently run query does not take advantage of __ __; user then opens view instead of writing query existing indexes
views do not have to be __ static
you can enable view to receive data at run time and use that input to filter the data
MS Access supports __ data type, but does not support __ extension to specify number of digits & number of digits to right of decimal place Number; (m,n)
in IDENTITY (M,N) phrase, IDENTITY indicates that this is surrogate key that will start at __ __ for 1st row, created & increased by __ __ as each additional row is created value M; increment N
MS Access ANSI-89 does not support UNIQUE & CHECK __ __, nor DEFAULT keyword column constraints
MS Access documentation treats __ as keyword rather than as constraint DEFAULT
in MS Access, __ constraints & __ values can be set in table Design view; this is solution for UNIQUE, CHECK, & DEFAULT column constraint not working in this DBMS equivalent; initial
means a variable-length character data type VarChar
values are of fixed length; number listed btwn parentheses, i.e. (1), will indicate that number of characters will be stored for every value, regardless of length of value entered (they will be padded with blanks when necessary) Character (Char)
the maximum length of VarChar will be indicated with a(n) number listed btwn parentheses, i.e. (1)
VarChar is not used all of the time, because a few extra __ of processing is required for VarChar columns, in order to store __ of the value bytes; length
allows determination of values that consist of certain decimal number(s), w/set amount prior to & after decimal point Numeric data type
when using Numeric data type, decimal point is not __ & does not __ __ set number(s) stored; count as
in a Numeric data type, such as Numeric(8,2), there are 8 numeric values __ __ & 2 numeric values __ decimal point prior to; after
means that when new row created, if no value provided for specific column, DBMS is to provide the numeric value indicated DEFAULT followed by a numeric value
values will consist of date &/or time values; DBMS handle in various ways consult docs for specific product DateTime data type
every SQL statement should end with a(n) __; although not always required it is considered a good practice semicolon
as a matter of __, at end of SQL statement, ending parenthesis & semicolon placed on line of its own; this blocks out table definitions for easy __ style; reading
DateTime, Numeric, Int, & Char are four basic SQL data types
MS Access reads SQL statements containing both Char & VarChar data types but converts both to __ __ data type in MS Access database fixed Text
column that will be primary key must be given column constraint __ __; after tbl columns defined, tbl constraint used to create __ key NOT NULL; primary
every table constraint has a name followed by the __ of the constraint definition
only naming __ for primary key constraint is that it is unique restriction
defining primary key using table constraints offer advantage, because it is required for defining composite keys because PRIMARY KEY column constraint cannot be used on more than one column
defining primary key using table constraints offer advantage because, by using table constraints you can choose name of constraint that defines primary key; controlling name of constraints has advantages for administering database
defining primary key using table constraints offer advantage, because allows to easily __ __ keys in some DBMS products define surrogate
table constraints can be used for purposes __ __ creating primary & foreign keys other than
one of most important purposes for table constraints is to define constraints on __ __ data values
used to query databases & to modify data in the tables SQL DML
has 2 forms, depending on whether data are supplied for all of the columns SQL INSERT statement
in INSERT statement, if data for some columns are __, then name of columns for which data __ __ must be listed missing; are provided
in INSERT statement, although order of data must match order of __ __, order of column names does not have to match order of __ in table column names; columns
for INSERT statement to work, values for __ NOT NULL must also be provided all
SELECT ColumnNames FROM TableName WHERE SomeConditionExists; basic SQL SELECT/FROM/WHERE framework clause for querying single table
result of an SQL SELECT statement is a(n) __; this is always __ for SELECT statements relation; true
order of column name(s) __ keyword SELECT, determines order of column(s) in the __ __ after; resulting table
if you want DBMS to check for & eliminate __ __, you must use the DISTINCT keyword duplicate rows
SQL statements can also be used to select all __ for certain __; specified by using SQL WHERE clause columns; rows
can also specify __ __ of table by using asterisk (*) after keyword __ all columns; SELECT
pattern SELECT/FROM/WHERE is __ __ of SQL statements fundamental pattern
many different __ can be placed in a WHERE clause conditions
when column data is Char or VarChar __ __ must be placed in single quotes comparison values
when column data is Integer or Numeric __ __ are necessary no quotes
you can place more than __ __ in WHERE clause by using AND keyword, and only rows meeting __ conditions will be selected one condition; all
when using OR keyword, rows that meet __ of condition will be __ any; selected
WHERE clauses can refer to __ of values & __ values ranges; partial
use of underscore (_) means any character __ __ in spot occupied by underscore can occur
one underscore (_) is used for each __ character unknown
SQL __ __ operate on results of SELECT statement built-in functions
operate only on integer, numeric, & other number-oriented columns SUM, AVG, MAX & MIN
in general, built-in functions __ be used with WHERE clause cannot
GROUP BY keyword tells DBMS to sort table by __ __ & then apply built-in function to groups of rows that have __ __ for named named column; same value
can restrict SELECT statement, with GROUP BY keyword, by using __ clause that will apply condition to groups that are formed HAVING
SQL standard specifies that when WHERE & GROUP BY occur together, WHERE condition will be applied first
subqueries are __ for processing multiple tables, as long as result come from __ table effective; single
if we need to display data from two or more tables, subqueries do not work & we need to instead use __ operation join
UPDATE..SET command is powerful command that needs to be used with care because __ __ can modify more than 1 column at time UPDATE command
drops table's structure along with all of table's data; dangerous command DROP TABLE statement
DROP TABLE statement does not work if table contains/could contain valued needed to fulfill referential integrity constraints
advantage to control constraint names by using __ syntax CONSTRAINT
ALTER statement can also be used to add a(n) constraint
CHECK constraints are __ __ WHERE clauses in SQL queries similar to
CHECK constraints __ __ keywords IN, NOT IN, & LIKE (for specification of decimal places) can contain
CHECK constraints can use < & > signs for __ checks range
ALTER TABLE statement is handy when you need to add/drop columns
when adding column to existing table that contains data, in ALTER TABLE statements, you cannot add NOT NULL column; constraint would be __ because there would be __ __ in each row violated; missing data
when adding column to existing table that contains data, in ALTER TABLE statements, if you want column to be NOT NULL, you must create it as __, insert needed data, then __ column to NOT NULL NULL; modify
ALTER statement can be used to modify __ __, but have to be careful because this can result in __ of data data type; loss
SQL views can __ __ to data in multiple tables & even in other views combine access
SQL statements can be __ from command window processed
DEFAULT can be considered __ or __ depending on DBMS keyword; constraint
if no column constraint is specified column is set to NULL
if primary key has only one column, you can define it by using primary key constraint
another way to define primary key is to use __ constraint table
table & primary key constraints can be used to define single-column & multicolumn __ __, & can also implement __ __ constraints primary keys; referential integrity
can specify that updates & deletions should cascade foreign key definitions
after tables & constraints are created you can add data by using __ command INSERT
after tables & constraints are created you can __ __ by using SELECT command query data
can use SELECT to obtain __ columns, __ rows, or both specific; specific
tables & their associated set of columns field list
Created by: lfrancois