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Ch. 7 Review

Physiology 2420

QuestionAnswer
What are the two main anatomical parts that the nervous system is divided into? central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system
the division of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord; consolidates information received from the organs and develops commands to be sent to the organs; and is also the site of learning, memory, emotions, and cognition CNS or central nervous system
the division of the nervous system that contains nerves that provide communication between the central nervous system and organs of the body; includes afferent and efferent branches peripheral nervous system
What are the two subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system? afferent and efferent
Neurons of the __________ division transmit sensory and visceral information from the organs to the CNS. afferent
Neurons of the ___________ division transmit information from the CNS to organs in the periphery that perform functions in response to commands from neurons. efferent
Internal environment comes from ___________ information. visceral
External environment comes from _____________ information. sensory
cells, tissues, or organs that respond to neural or chemical signals; in homeostatic regulatory systems, cells, tissues, or organs that respond to output signals of the integrating center and bring about the final response. effector organs
A neuron capable of transmitting messages to an effector organ or receiving information from a sensory organ is said to _________ that organ. innervate
The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system can be divided into two main branches. Which are? somatic and autonomic nervous system
the division of the nervous system that encompasses nerve cells that regulate skeletal muscle contractions somatic
the division of the nervous system that encompasses efferent neurons that synapse with and regulate the function of internal organs and other structures not under voluntary control autonomic
efferent neuron of the somatic nervous system that synapses on skeletal muscle cells; originates in the spinal cord ventral horn or in analogous structures in the brainstem motor neuron
The __________ nervous system consists of the motor neurons which regulate skeletal muscle contractions. somatic
The ________ nervous system consists of neurons that regulate the function of internal organs and other structures (such as sweat glands and blood vessels) that are not under voluntary control. autonomic
The autonomic nervous system can be divided into two branches. Which are? parasympathetic and sympathetic
What are the two main classes of cells in the nervous system? neurons and glial cells
cells in the nervous system that provide various types of support to the neurons, including structural and metabolic support glial cells
cells capable of producing action potentials excitable cells
What are the three main components of a neuron? cell body, dendrites and an axon
The ___________ contains the cell nucleus and most of the cell's organelles; it carries out most of the functions that other cells perform, such as protein synthesis and cellular metabolism. cell body (soma)
branches that extend from the cell body of a neuron and receive information from other neurons. dendrites
specialized junction in a neuron synapse
branch that extends from the cell body of a neuron and sends information to other neurons or effector cells via action potentials and release of neurotransmitter axon
A dendrites function in to (send/receive) information and an axons function is to (send/receive) information. dendrite = receive axon = send
branches of an axon are called _________. collaterals
The axon functions in the rapid transmission of information over relatively long distances in the form of electrical signals called ________ _____________, is brief, large changes in membrane potential. action potentials
During an action potential the inside of the cell becomes (+/-) charged relative to the outside of the cell. positively +
The site where the axon originates from the cell body of a neuron and the point of initiation of action potentials; trigger zone. axon hillock
the end of the axon that forms a synapse with another neuron or an effector cell. axon terminal
ion channels that are always open; responsible for the resting membrane potential. leak channels
ion channels that open or close in response to a chemical messenger binding to the channel ligand-gated channel
channels that open or close in response to a change in membrane potential voltage-gated channel
What are the three functional classes of neurons? afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and interneurons
___________ neurons transmit information from the central nervous system to effector organs. Efferent
neurons that transmit information from the central nervous system to effector organs efferent
Created by: GracieLou