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Ch. 5 review

Physiology 2420

QuestionAnswer
Proteins on a target cell that recognize and bind a chemical messenger; in sensory systems, detectors of stimuli receptors
the process by which the binding of chemical messenger to receptors brings about a response in a target cell signal transduction
type of chemical messenger for which the secretory cell and target cell are the same autocrine
type of chemical messenger that communicates with neighboring cells by simple diffusion paracrine
chemical messenger released from the axon terminal of a neuron neurotransmitter
chemical messengers released from endocrine cells or glands into the interstitial fluid, where they then diffuse into the blood and travel to target cells hormones
proteins that stimulate the growth and proliferation of a particular type of tissue growth factors
plasma proteins that form blood clots when activated clotting/coagulating factors
peptides or proteins that are usually secreted by immune cells in response to a stimulus cytokines
at a synapse, a neuron that transmits signals to a second neuron or an effector cell presynaptic neuron
cell that receives communication from a neurotransmitter released at a synapse postsynaptic cell
special class of hormones released by neurosecretory cells neurohormones
Name the 4 functional classifications of chemical messengers: 1. Paracrine 2. Autocrine 3. Neurotransmitter 4. Hormone
molecules are lipid-soluble and therefore readily cross the plasma membrane, but they do not dissolve in water lipophilic (hydrophobic)
molecules are water soluble and therefore do not cross the plasma membrane lipophobic (hydrophilic)
What are the 5 major chemical classes of messengers? 1. Amino acids 2. Amines 3. Peptides/proteins 4. Steroids 5. Eicosanoids
Amino acids are lipophobic/lipophilic? lipophobic
Amine acids are lipophobic/lipophilic? lipohobic
Peptide/Proteins are lipophobic/lipophilic? lipophobic
Steroids are lipophobic/lipophilic? lipophilic
Eicosanoids are lipophobic/lipophilic? lipophilic
amine compounds that contain a catechol group are are derived from the amino acid tyrosine catecholamines
Name 3 catecholamines: 1. dopamine 2. norepinephrine 3. epinephrine
Steroids are a class of compounds derived from ___________. cholesterol
___________ is the precursor for norepinphrine. dopamine
time it takes for half the amount of a molecule to be degraded half-life
The strength of the binding between a messenger and its receptor is termed __________. affinity
Ligands that bind to receptors and produce a biological response are called __________. agonist
__________ are ligands that binds to receptors but do not produce a response. antaqonist
What are the three categories that membrane-bound receptors fall into? 1. channel-linked receptors 2. enzyme-linked receptors 3. G protein-linked receptors
Ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of a chemical to a receptor or to the channel are called _________ channels. ligand-gated
protein that functions as both an ion channel and a receptor; binding of a messenger to the receptor portion of the protein opens the channel channel-linked receptor
an intracellular messenger molecule that is produced in response to the binding of an extracellular messenger (the first messenger) to a receptor second messenger
cytosolic calcium-binding protein; modulates the activity of intracellular proteins. calmodulin
plasma membrane proteins that function as both a receptor and an enzyme enzyme-linked receptors
plasma membrane receptor that is coupled to a G protein G-protein linked receptor
membrane proteins with the ability to bind guanosine nucleotides; function in coupling an extracellular messenger to a response inside the target cell G protein
What is the most common second messenger? cAMP
a series of sequential steps that progressively increase in magnitude cascade
What are the two organ systems that are specialized for long-distance communication? the nervous system and the endocrine system
What are the three types of cell surface receptors? 1. channel-linked receptors 2. enzyme-linked receptors 3. G Protein-linked receptors
Created by: GracieLou