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eku Micro Test 1

EKU Micro Test 1

T/F Infectious diseases are increasing causes of morbidity and mortality True
STI are (epidemic, endemic or pandemic) Pandemic
Where do nosocomial infections occur? Hospitals, nursing facilities, and long term care facilities
What percent of people are expected to acquire a nosocomial infection? 5%
How many people each year in the US acquire Gonorrhea? 500k
How did lassa fever come to America? Missionary Nurse from Africa
What temperature must beef be cooked to as regulated by the FED? 140
What is the most common portal of entry? Respiratory and gasterointestial
What is a major complication with infectious diseases? Drug resistance
What is the only infection that has been eradicated from the world population? smallpox
West nile may have been this as conspiracy theorist? It was a terrorist attack
Polio has how many serovars? 3
When was the last endemic case of small pox? 1977
When was small pox eradicated world wide? 1980
Microbes inhabiting a particular body site in most healthy persons Normal or indigenous flora
microbes established at abody site and not affecting host in any adverse manner commensal
microbes adventitiously present at body site and not capable of establishing it's self under present conditions Transient
microbe isolated from a specimen but not actually present at that body site contaminant
microbe producing pathological effects at body site in particular instance; viz. etiological agent of an infectious diseases Pathogen
Body sites with normal flora skin, conjunctiva, nasopharynx, oropharynx, upper intestine, large intestine and feces, lower urogenital tract
from the environment or another host exogenous
from the host;s own indigenous flora endogenous
What do endogenous sources of infections usually require to flourish in the body? antecedent disease, traumatic injury, or compromised immune system
what is another name for an animal borne infection zoonosis or zoonotic disease
arthropod borne diseases are also called vector borne
What is a fomite? any inanimate object that you come in contact with
pathogenisis by microbe means? pathology and physiological dysfunction
what is pathology damage done by organism
what is an unapperent or subclinical infection overt or clinical disease
What does clinical disease mean infection accompanied by onset of signs and symptoms
objective manifestations signs
subjective manifestations symptoms
combination of signs and symptoms associated with particular disease syndrome
these are observable during a physical examination signs
these are described by the patient during a physical examination symptoms
the time between exposure to microbe and onset of signs and symptoms incubation period
time between exposure and shedding microbe latent period
time during which microbe is being shed period of communicability
What is the typical course of an infection prodrome, acute phase, defervescence, convalescence, resolution
In the typical course of an infection the stage in which there are vague or nonspecific symptoms is known as? prodrome
In the typical course of an infection the stage in which there is a full clinical manifestation is known as acute phase
In the typical course of an infection the stage in which the signs and symptoms are subsiding is known as defervescense
In the typical course of an infection the period of recovery is known as convalescence
In the typical course of an infection the period in which there is an absence of signs and symptoms with or without squealae is known as resolution
What does the severity of an infection depend on? numerous host and microbe factors
What are five modes of transmission of microbes direct contact, airborne, foodborne, waterborne, arthropodborne
contamination of the skin and mucous membranes is what mode of transmission direct contact
inhalation is what mode of transmission airborne
ingestion is what mode of transmission food or water borne
insect vector is what mode of transmission arthropodborne
What is an example of direct contact transmission STI
What is an example of Airborne transmission influenza
What is an example of food or water borne transmission salmonellosis
What is an example of arthropodborne transmission lyme disease
what does communicable diseases mean? Host to host transmission
A disease that is present at low but constant level in a population is known as endemic
a disease that is increases in lever of disease about that usually found in population is known as epidemic
a widespread disease in a region or world wide is known as pandemic
What is the percentage of persons who contract a disease compared to those at risk (exposed) attack rate
What is the percentage of those with disease who die from it case fatality rate
what does CFR stand for Case fatality rate
What is a noncommunicable disease no host to host transmission
What are three examples of noncommunicable diseases Caused by indigenous flora, acquired fro environment, ingestion of preformed microbe toxin
Defined as an infectious disease which regular and timely information on individual cases is considered for prevention and or control of the disease notifiable infectious disease
How are notifiable infectious diseases reported via the the publich health system to the CDC
If you wanted to get data on notifiable diseases where could you look Morbidity and mortality weekly report (MMWR) and its various supplements, or KY epidemiologic notes and reports
Time and nature of onset, symptoms, social history, occupation, travel and contacts are collectively known as Patient history
Examination of body symptoms and signs are known as patient physical exam
working, differential and definitive are stages in which process diagnosis
Working diagnosis is known as likely nature and etiology
Differential diagnosis is known as tow or more possible etiologies
definitive diagnosis is known as exact etiology known
What normally determines definitive diagnosis laboratory results
what are two aspects of treatment symptomatic and specific
what does symptomatic mean supportive
What is does specific mean in relation to treatment antimicrobial drug targeting the etiologic agent
What is microscopy used for in bacteriology gram and acid fast stains
What is microscopy used for in mycology KOH and LPCB wet mounts
What is LPCB used for in mycology Idenification
What is microscopy used for in parasitology iodine wet mounts and trichrome smears
What is microscopy used for in virology cells for cpe
In general what is the purpose of microscopy in microbiology confirm specimen submitted is representative, establish the probability of infection, presumptively id agent, augment cultural identification of agent
When was the gram stain developed 1884
What is the max magnification of a brightfield microscope 1000x
what is the max resolution of a brightfield microscope .2 micrometers
What is the magnification on the oculars of a bF microscope 10x wide field
What are the magnifications of the objectives on a BF microscope 4x, 10x, 40x and 100x
What is the 4x objective normally called scanning objective
what is the 100x objective called Oil immersion
What are two important adjustments when it comes to microscopy interpupillary distant and dioptic adjustment
What is the differential stain for bacteria gram stain
if a bacteria does not stain with aniline dyes what kind of bacteria are you working with acid fast
what color do gram positive bacteria stain purple
what color do gram negative bacteria stain red/orange
what specimens is gram stains not applicable to feces, throat swabs and whole blood
How do fungi normally stain gram positive
What is the decolorizer used in gram staining alcohol acetate mix
What does crystal violet stain everything
what is the counter stain safranin
what is the fixative in gram staining methanol
What color will a neutrophil be gram positive-purply
What is another name for the acid fast stain kinyoun stain
who developed the acid fast stain Robert koch
When was the acid fast stain developed 1884-before the gram stain
what is the primary stain in the AFS carbofuchsin red
What is the decolorizer in the AFS 3% HCl in ethanol
What is the counter stain in AFS methylene blue or brilliant green
microbes that don't decolorize with acid-alcohol and retain the primary stain are known as acid fast
What is the AFS useful for in mycology ascospores in molds and parasites (except cryptospoidium spp cyst form in stool)
What is normally diagnostic for parasites wet mount microscopy
What are the two groups in fungi moulds and yeast
What is the plural of genus genera
what does the genus normally mean descriptive term or latinized proper name
what is the plural of species species
what does the species normally mean descriptive term (epithet)
What do the descriptive terms normally describe in species name characteristic, habitat or disease association
the genus name is always capitalized
the species name is not used without the genus name or initial
scientific names is always italicized or underline even when it's genus alone
descendants of a single isolant are called strain
distinctive biochemical or physiological (phenotypic) property biovar
distinctive antigenic characteristics serovar
osis and iasis normally be condition or disease
common names are not capitalized, italicized or underlined
Created by: jnwells03