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Basic Heme Final

RBCs, anemias, hemoglobin, WBC, etc.

The red cell protein that is responsible for deformability and flexibility of the red cell is spectrin
What is the preferable site for bone marrow aspiration and biopsy? iliac crest
How would you differentiate basophilic stippling from Pappenheimer bodies? stain smear with Prussian blue
This RBC pathways is responsible for providing 90% of the cellular ATP for RBCs Embden-Meyerof pathway
Glycosolated hemoglobin, or hemoglobin A1c, is found in abnormally increased levels in this condition. diabetes mellitus
Terminally differentiated cells must go through ____________________ to maintain homeostasis. apoptosis
What cytokines can increase the production of erythrocytes, granulocytes, and platelets? EPO, CFU-GM, and TPO
These cells, involved in hematopoeisis, have the ability to self-renew hematopietic stem cells
A patient experiencing neurological complications with a bone marrow aspirate containing erythroblastic hyperplasia and megaloblastic normoblasts would likely be suffering from ____________________________. pernicious anemia
The thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes are all part of the _________________________________. primary lymphoid tissue
This anemia shows decreased marrow cellularity, cytopenias in two cellular elements, and a reticulocytopenia _________________________________________. Aplastic anemia
How do you calculate an absolute cell count? Percentage of cell type from differential X total cell count = absolute cell count
Fetal hemoglobin is made of which chains? 2 alpha, 2 gamma
Hemoglobin A1 is made of which chains? 2 alpha, 2 beta
Hemoglobin A2 is made of which chains? 2 alpha, 2 delta
If a sample is not appropriately mixed before running it on the instrument, which type of error would this be? Pre-analytical error
Auer rods are only found in this cell type. Myeloblasts
Decreased levels of hemopexin and haptoglobin together with elevated bilirubin suggests this. intravascular hemolysis
Microcytic anemias seen in patients with lethargy and pallor should have ________________ studies performed. Iron
When the bone marrow is hypercellular with an M:E ratio of 1:5, what does this mean? Erythroid hyperplasia is likely present
When the bone marrow is hypocellular with an M:E ratio of 1:2, what does this mean? Myeloid hypoplasia is likely present
Which additional hemoglobin types migrate with hemoglobin S on cellulose acetate? Hemoglobins D and G
Hemoglobin Bart's is made of which chains? 4 gamma
Hemoglobin H is made of which chains? 4 beta
Increased levels of 2,3 BPG cause the O2 dissociation curve to shift _______________. left
Decreased levels of 2,3 BPG cause the O2 dissociation curve to shift _______________. right
This is the most common RBC enzymopathy. G6PD
The sugar-water test is used to help identify this condition. PNH
If a Donath-Landsteiner test is positive along with a positive DAT (polyspecific, and anti-C3), which condition should be suspected? PCH
The I antigen system is associated with t condition. CAD (CAS)
When platelet satellitism occurs, what should the technologist do? request redraw in sodium citrate tube
Corrected WBC counts are performed by: Corrected WBC count = WBC count X (100 / 100+ NRBC count)
What is the rule of three in hemoglobin analysis? approx HCT = HGB X 3 (+/- 3)
Smudge cells can be minimized by adding what to the sample prior to slide making? albumin
Platelet aggregation requires this ion. calcium
increased iron, transferrin, TIBC, and ferritin can be associated with which condition? hereditary hemochromatosis
Heinz bodies are composed of denatured hemoglobin
Cabot rings are composed of mitotic spindles
Pappenheimer bodies are composed of iron
Siderotic granules are composed of iron
Howell Jolly bodies are composed of DNA
Basophilic stippling is composed of ______________ and is highly associated with this condition. RNA; lead poisoning
What is the normal range for platelets? 150,000 - 440,000 x 10^9/L
Blood clots are broken down into which products that can be measured in the laboratory? fibrin degredation products (fibrin split products), D-dimers
In automated hematologic instruments, the RBC cell volume and number are used to create the RBC ________________. histogram
What is impedence in terms of automated hematology instruments? principles where resistance is measured as cells pass through a flow cell and photo-detector to be measured/counted
The congenital version of pure red cell aplasia is called what? Diamond-Blackfan Anemia
What is the very first step in the coagulation process after vascular injury? vasoconstriction
In automated hemotology instrumentation, side scatter is used to determine what? cell granularity
In automated hemotology instrumentation, forward scatter is used to determine what? cell size / blood counts
An abnormally increased osmotic fragility is associated with this condition. Hereditary spherocytosis
An abnormally elevated ESR is associated with which conditions? inflammation, increased proteins/globulins, multiple myeloma, etc.
These cells are involved in resorption and remodeling of calcified bone Osteoclasts
These cells form calcified bone Osteoblasts
The slow circulation of the spleen helps with various splenic functions including 1. Culling 2. Pitting 3. Immune Defense 4. Storage
The major RBC phospholipids include: Phosphatidylcholine (PC) Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) Phosphatidylserine (PS) Sphingomyeline (SM)
The RBC sodium/potassium pumps functions by: Hydrolyzing 1 mole of ATP to remove 3Na+ and take up 2K+
The RBC metabolic pathway which creates 5-10% of the RBC energy by producing NADPH is? Hexose Monophosphate Shunt
This RBC metabolic pathway serves to maintain heme iron in the reduced (ferrous) state Fe++ Methemoglobin Reductase Pathway
This RBC metabolic pathway is condered part of the glcolytic pathway. Rapoport-Leubering Shunt
Under normal circumstances, what is the percentage of extravascular and intravascular hemolysis in destroying aged RBCs. 90% takes place extravascularly 10% takes place intravascularly
This hemoglobin is in the relaxed state Oxyhemoglobin
This hemoglobin is in the tense state Deoxyhemoglobin
This abnormal hemoglobin has an affinity for CO is 200 times higher than for O2 Carboxyhemoglobi
This form of hemoglobin has iron in the ferric (Fe+++) state Methemoglobin
Basophilia is associated with: inflammatory response, Immediate hypersensitivity reactions
Eosinophilia is associated with: Allergic diseases, parasitic infections, toxic reactions, GI disease, RT diseases, neoplastic disorders
A fully activated terminal form of the B lymph is called a: Plasma cell
The term "VCS" stands for this in Beckman-Coulter hematology automation. V = Volume, C = Conductivity, S = Scatter
The acid elution test looks for: Fetal hemoglobin
Macrocytosis is associated with: imparied DNA synthesis, recticulocytosis, Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, other diseases
What is a RPI and what is its purpose? Reticulocyte Production Index; The idea of the RPI is to assess whether the BM is producing an appropriate response to an anemic state
These anemias are associated with RPIs <1 aplastic anemia, IDA, ACD, etc.
This is the second most common enzyme deficiency (after G6PD) PK deficiency
A hypoproliferative condition involving mulitlineage hematopoietic precursor cells would lead to: Pancytopenia
WAIHA accounts for which % of AIHA? Accounts for ~ 70% of all cases
Cold AIHA is associated most commonly with which immunoglobulin class? IgM
Raynaud’s phenomenon is most commonly associated with which anemia? Cold AIHA
This is a multisystem disorder associated with RBC fragmentation, thrombocytopenia, acute nephropathy (which can include renal failure) Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
This condition is associated with a deficiency in ADAMTS13 protease Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
HELLP syndrome stands for: Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count
Created by: LeahC