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Science- 7th

7th Grade

Where are specialized cells found? specialized cells are found in tissues.
What is the function of the nucleus? cell's control center.
Describe animal cells. lacks cell wall and chloroplasts
Describe plant cells. has cell wall and chloroplasts
Describe bacteria cells. lacks membrane covered organelles
How do electron microscopes work? electrons are sent over the surface of an object.
How do light microscopes work? magnify an object by bending the light passing through them
What is resolution? another term for sharpness of an object
Why was the invention of the microscope important? people were able to observe cells
What type of cells did Leewenhoek observe? water teeth scrapings and gum scrapings
Why is water important to cells? many chemical reactions could not happen without water
Why are enzymes important to cells? protein that speeds up chemical reactions
Define element. any substance that cannot be broken down into smaller pieces
Define compound. two or more elements combined chemically
all organic compounds have what element? carbon
what are starches made from? carbon hydrogen oxygen
Define diffusion. main method by which small molecules move across the cell membrane
Define osmosis. diffusion of water
Define active transport. things moving in and out of a cell using energy
Define passive transport. things moving in and out of a cell using no energy
Types of active transport. active and passive
what causes cancer? damaged dna
How many types of cancer? over 100
treatments for cancer? radiation surgery and drugs
what factors cause cancer? the damaged dna causes the cell cycle to go too fast and cells replicate before it is time and a tumor is caused
what happens in cancerous cells? they replicate too fast
what are tumors? a mass of cells that divides uncontrollably
what is photosynthesis? a process by which a cell uses sunlight for energy
how do the raw materials get into the plants' cells? sunlight is captured and combined with water and co2 to produce sugars
what are the products of photosynthesis? sugar and oxygen
how does photosynthesis benefit heterotrophs? plants get eaten by heterotrophs.
how does sunlight energy get captured for photosynthesis? chloroplasts absorb sunlight
what is respiration? cells break down simple food molecules and use their energy
where is most energy released during respiration? mitochondria
how is respiration related to photosynthesis? the raw materials of one are the products of the other
how do respiration and photosynthesis affect the levels of oxygen in the air? respiration uses oxygen and photosynthesis creates it
how do respiration and photosynthesis affect the levels of carbon dioxide in the air? photosynthesis uses co2 and respiration creates it
what is fermentation? an energy releasing process that uses no oxygen
what are the two types of fermentation? alchoholic and lactic acid
where does fermentation occur? muscles
when does fermentation occur? when oxygen does not get to the muscles fast enough
what is the cell cycle? the regular sequence of growth and division in cells
what is the order of the steps in the cell cycle? interphase mitosis cytokinesis
which steps are a part of mitosis? prophase metaphase anaphase telophase
define mitosis. the stage where the nucleus splits
define centromere. holds two chromatids together
define chromatids. each identical rod in a chromosome
what is the structure of dna? a twisted ladder
what bases make up dna? adenine guanine cytosine thymine
what is a mutation? where a base pair is substituted added or deleted
when are mutations harmful? when it reduces an organism's chance of survival or repruduction
what are chromosomes made of? condensed double rods of chromatin
what determines the genetic code? the order of the nitrogen bases
what is copied during replication? dna
what are chromatids? each identical rod in a chromosome
how are dna and rna different? there is no thymine in rna instead there is uracil
where does protein synthesis occur? on the ribosomes
what is the job of mrna? copies the coded message
what is the job of trna? carries amino acids to the ribosomes
what does the order of the bases determine? genetic code
define alleles. different forms of a gene
define traits. different forms of a characteristic
define dominant. overpowering
define recessive. hidden when dominant was present
define probability. number that describes likeliness
define homozygous. someone who has two of the same genotype
define heterozygous. someone who has two different genotypes
define genotype. the dna code
define phenotype. the physical appearance
define hybrid. heterozygous
define purebred. homozygous
define genes. factors that control a trait
what did mendel do in his experiments? he crossbred pea plants
what happens during meiosis? a process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to create sex cells
what did sutton learn about sex cells? he learned half the chromosomes were in sex cells
how much genetic material does each sex cell contribute to the offspring? half
what is the chromosome theory of inheritance? genes are carried from parents to offspring on chromosomes
what is the function of the cell wall? protect and support plant cell.
what is the function of the cell membrane? controls what comes in and out of cell
what is the function of the nuclear envelope? protects nucleus.
what is the function of the chromatin? help nucleus control cell.
what is the function of the nucleolus? is where ribosomes are made.
what is the function of the mitochondria? they convert the energy in the food into energy the cell can use to carry out functions.
what is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum? carries proteins around the cell.
what is the function of the ribosomes? produce proteins.
what is the function of the golgi bodies? receive proteins, package them and distribute them.
what is the function of the chloroplasts? capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell.
what is the function of the vacuoles? storage area.
what is the function of the lysosomes? break down certain materials in cell.
Created by: brend15
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