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A&P 2404 Final Cont.

What are 2 structural modifications that assist blood flow back to the heart(venous return)? Large lumen, Valves (internal flaps that prevent backflow of blood)
What are 2 functional adaptions of venous return? Muscular pumps(milking), Respiratory pump (breathing lowers pressure in thoracic cavity and speeds up flow)
in Capillary beds, this opens and closes depending on physiological needs Precapillary sphicter
When active, blood flow can be increased up to 10x by opening capillary beds Skeletal muscle
Very sensitive to pH decrease and to blood CO2, also sensitive to b.p. changes Brain
What causes brain constricts vessels? an increase in b.p.
What causes vasodilation in brain? a decrease in b.p
temperature regulation by shunting blood to and from capillaries Skin
What causes vasodilation and increase blood flow in Lungs? Increase O2
What causes vasoconstriction and bypass in lungs? Decrease O2
Contration of heart,compression of coronary vessels; blood flow(by vasodilation) can only occur when? during diasole
What are 3 main factors tha influence blood pressure? Cardiac Output, Peripheral resistance & blood volume
More fluid means what for blood volume more blood volume
More volume means what for blood pressure HIgher blood pressure
Short Term neural; Vasomotor center keeps vessels slightly constricted, which raises b.p.
Short term neural; baroreceptors pressure detectors, stimulated when b.p rises & lowers b.p
Short term neural; chemoreceptors detect pH(decrease)or CO2(increase), which raises b.p.
Short term neural; higher brain centers conscious, when you get scared and bp raises
Short term chemical;adrenal hormones raises b.p.
Short term chemical; ANP(atrial natriuretic peptide) puts sodium in urine, water follows, lowers b.p.
Short term chemical;ADH hold onto water, b.p rises
Short term chemical; inflammatory decrease b.p. (vasodilator)
Long term controls that affect b.p. Indirect & direct
Long term control; indirect renin angiotensin mechanism- raises b.p
Long term control; direct urination
Short term chemical; alcohol lowers b.p.
Short term chemical; Prostaglandin derived growth factor(endothelium) raises b.p.
Short term chemical; Endothelin(endothelium) raises b.p.
Short term chemical; Nitric oxide(endothelium) lowers b.p.
Short term neural affect that affect b.p. vasomotor center, baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, higher brain centers
Short term chemical affects that affect b.p adrenal hormone, ANP, ADH, Endothelium (prostaglandin, endothelin,nitric oxide), inflammatory, alcohol
Name the System: Its function is to return leaked fluids and proteins from blood to circulation Lymphatic system
Who's function is to transport fats from digestive system to blood? Lymphatic system
Which system is responsible for protecting the body from foreign cells or substances by activity of specialized cells in the system(making connections) Lymphatic system
What type of tissue does the lymphatic system have? Reticular Connective Tissue
Why is Reticular Connective Tissue good for the Lymphatic system? What do they do? house and provide a site of proliferation of lymphocytes & provide surveillance sites
What is the significance of Lymph nodes in the Adrenal Cortex? Lymphocytes(in follicles), germinal centers (b cells produced)
What is the significance of lymph nodes in the adrenal medulla? b cell offspring antibody production; macrophages,lymphocytes & plasma cells
What do the lymph nodes in afferent vessels do? bring lymph into node (several per node)
What do the lymph nodes in efferent vessels do? take lymph out of node (few per node)
What is the largest lymphatic organ? Spleen
What is red pulp? venous sinuses(leaky blood vessels); reticular connective tissue
What is white pulp? clusters of lymphocytes on reticular fibers
Which organ houses the site for lymphocyte proliferation (immune system surverillance) Spleen
Which organ is responsible for blood cleaning (removing defective or worn out cells and platelets)? Spleen
Which organ is the storage site for breakdown products of erythrocytes? Spleen
Which organ is the site of RBC production in fetus? Spleen
Which organ is the storage site for platelets? Spleen
What are the antibody classes? IgD, IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE
Which antibody class is attached to b-cells; b cell activation & enhances antibody production IgD
Which antibody class promotes agglutination of microbes and help activate complement IgM
Which antibody class is the most abundant & diverse class; is the main antibody of primary& secondary responses& enhances phagocytosis by complement fixation IgG
Which antibody class is found in body secretions, also associated with mucosal surfaces anf prevents pathogen attachment IgA
Which antibody class is associated with basophils, causes cell to release histamine & is involved in inflammation and allergic response IgE
What is based on a portion of the molecule which has an identical amino sequence for all antibodies within that class? Constant region/determine class
One part of the molecule is unique and specific for individual antigenic determinants variable region/antigen specific
What are Non-Specific Cells of the Immune System? Neutrophil, Macrophages, Eosinophil, natural Killer Cells
What are Specific Cells of the Immune System? T-Cells & B-Cells
What are 3 Major types of T-cels? Cytotoxic T's, Helper T's & suppressor T's
Which type of T- cell are the first ones on the scene (Effector cells)? Cytotoxic T's
What type of t-cells assist other cells Helper T's
What type of T-cells turn down of depress activity? Suppressor T's
What do B-cells use? Antibodies
What kind of immunity requires the body to mount an immune response? Active immunity
What kind of immunity does not require the body to mount immune response but recieves preformed antibodies? Passive Immunity
If you get infected,& b-cells mount a response= meet antigen & respond to challenge to build immunity, What kind of immunity is working? Naturally aquired active Immunity
If you are given a vaccine, to introduce to antigen & your body responses, what kind of immunity is working? Artificially aquired active immunity
If something is passes across the placenta or in breat milk what kind of immunity is working? Naturally aquired passive immunity
If you get rabies, tetanus, hepatitis.... what kind of immunity is working? Artifically aquired passive immunity
What is the function of Bile? breaks down fat(lipids) into smaller particles to increse surface area and enhance enzymatic attack
Which system extracts nutrients from food? Digestive system
Which system gets rid of wastes & constructs energy? Digestive system
What are 3 major functions of the Digestive system? Extract nutrients from food, get rid of wastes & contruct energy.
What are the 3 processes involved in urine formation? Glomerular Filration, Tubular reabsorption & Tubular secretion.
This process of urin formation is passive, non selective, based on pressure differences on either side of filration membrane; the junction of glomerular capillary walls and viseral layer of capsule Glomerular Filtration
Is blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries higher or lower than in ordinary capillaries? higher
This process of urin formation begins as soon as filtrate enters the proximal convoluted tubule... Tubular reabsorption
In this process of urin formation materials added to filtrate from blood for removal, elimation of undesirable reabsorbed substances occur. Tubular secretion
What does ADH do? source of water absorption
What happens if there is NO ADH present? Cells impermeable to H2O, water stays in filtrate and leaves body as urine (dehydration)
What happens if ADH is present? Cells freely permeable to water, absorbed from filtrate and stays in body
Which renal components does ADH affect DCT & Collecting ducts
What does mituration mean? urination
Is the internal urethral sphincter voluntary or involuntary? involuntary
Is the external uretral sphincter voluntary or involuntary? voluntary
Created by: a_palacios3



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