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Microbiology CH 8

What are the body's first lines of defense against foreign invasion of microbes? skin, membranes, secretions
What happens when the first defensive lines are penetrated? creates an opening for invasion of microbes
How does a fever help the body? stimulates production of IL-1, stimulates migration of leukocytes to infection to kill pathogens, reduces iron which limits growth of iron-requiring pathogens
How does the inflammatory response help the body? prevents, further spread of pathogen, localizes and contains the infection, contains and neutralizes toxins, aids in repair of damaged tissues
What are the outward signs of inflammation? swelling (edema), redness (blood flow to the area), heat, pain and pus formation
How can you recognize an anaphylactic reaction? itching, flushing, headache, ringing in ears, metallic taste in mouth, difficulty breathing, elevated blood pressure, increased heart rate, restlessness
How is an anaphylactic reaction treated? administer 100% oxygen, inject epinephrine and steroids, start IV fluids, inject Levophed (vasopressor agent used to increase blood pressure)
What are autoimmune diseases? Caused by person's immune system not recognizing a body tissue as being a normal part of the body. The body attempts to destroy the tissue perceived as foreign. Examples: lupus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatiod arthritis and Crohn's disease
Why is it important to match blood from a blood bank with the patient's own? If mismatched, a transfusion reaction will occur.
What can happen if mismatched blood is administered? SOB, rapid pulse, skin pallor, diffuse loss of blood at surgical site, decreased blood oxygen saturation
What can be done for the patient if mismatched blood is administered? stop blood transfusion, steroids are given, urine output is monitored, dialysis may be indicated
peristalsis successive waves of involuntary contraction passing along the walls of a hollow muscular structure (as the esophagus or intestine) and forcing the contents onward compare
wandering phagocyte mobile macrophages that migrate to the infected area
lymphokine any lymphocyte product, as interferon, that is not an antibody but may participate in the immune response through its effect on the function of other cells
invaginate to fold in so that an outer becomes an inner surface
Second line of defense phagocytes, complement and other blood products, interferon, fever production, iron and balance and the inflammatory response
Specific phagocytic cells granulocytes and macrophages
neutrophils most abundant and efficient phagocytes
eosinophils play a efficient phagocytic role during the allergic response
two types of macrophages mobile and fixed
fixed macrophage traps and engulfs foreign debris
phagocytosis engulfing of bacteria and debris
Function of lymph nodes remove microbes from lymph before they reach major ducts that empty into the blood stream
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