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Digestion Chapter 11

The digested food is abosorbed by what lining the gut? epithelium lining
After the digested food is absorbed by the epithelium lining the gut, it is passed into what systems? circulation and lymphatics
Some of the digested materials is processed where? The liver
What is a name for waste matter that is excreted from the body? defecation
Is the digestive system exposed to the external environment? Yes
What are two other names for "digestive tract"? GI tract or alimentary tract
How long is the GI tract? about 9 meters (29.5 ft)
The digestive tract begins where? Oral cavity
Does the pharynx come before or after the esophagus? before
Does the esophagus reach the stomach? yes.
Which intestine does the stomach open into? Small intestine
Where does most absorbtion occur? Small intestine
The rectum is part of what intestine? The large intestine
What are the 6 accessory digestive organs? Teeth, Tongue, Salivary glands, Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas
What do the Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas do? They help digest the food chemically by the enzymes they secrete and convey to the lumen by ducts.
How many layers does the wall of the digestive tract have? 4
The wall of the digestive tract has 4 layers. What are they? - deep to superficial (i.e., from the lumen to the outer surface of the gut) Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis, and Serosa
The layer surrounding the lumen is what? Mucosa
What does the mucosa consist of? a single layer of epithelium, a suportive connective tissue layer (lamina propria) and a thin, muscle layer (muscularis mucosae).
What type of lining epithelium is found in areas where there is a likelihood of excessive friction and injury? Nonkeratinized, stratified squamous (flat, pavement-like). e.i., mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and the anus.
What are goblet cells? exocrine cells that secrete mucus into the lumen and endocrine cells that secrete hormones into the blood.
Folds are called... Villi - regions where absorption take place.
How rapidly does the epithelium proliferate? every 5-7 days
Submucosa is located where? The submucosa is located outside the lamina propria and its muscles.
Is submucosa a connective tissue layer containing large nerves and blood vessels? Yes
What are the sphincter muscles stimulated by? sympathetic fibers
What do the parasympathetic fibers of the submucous plexus do? Stimulate muscle tone and activity and increase glandular secretions.
Where is the muscularis externa located? Just external to the submucosa
What does the muscularis externa consist of? Inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle.
The mouth, pharynx, and superior and middle part of the esophagus have skeletal muscle that helps to voluntarily control swallowing. The anus also has skeletal muscle that helps voluntarily control defecation. FACT
Serosa located outside the muscularis externa. connective tissue layer. smooth membrane (known as the peritoneum.
In the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, rectum, and anus, what is the connective tissue that attaches the part to the surrounding region? Serosa
What is the Peritoneum? The peritoneum is the serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. It has a smooth inner lining (simple squamous epithelium) supported by connective tissue.
Peritoneal fluid A clear fluid that lubricates the inside of the abdominal cavity packed with various organs which is secreted by the peritoneum membrane.
How many liters of fluid a day does the peritoneum secrete and absorb? about 7 liters.
The part of the peritoneum that suspends the small intestine in the abdominal cavity. Mesentery
A sheet of modified mesentery that falls like an apron from the stomach superiorly, over the anterior aspect of the abdominal cavity. Greater Omentum
What is the purpose of the Greater Omentum? It helps pad and protect the abdominal organs and prevents rapid heat loss from the anterior aspect of the abdomen because it contains a lot of adipose tissue.
What structure is the Mesocolon a part of? Peritoneum
What structure is the Falciform Ligament a part of? Peritoneum
What layer is the Serosa? Outer Covering
Pacesetter Cells Smooth muscle cells in the proximal part of the gut that spontaneously generate impulses and action potential.
The wave of muscular contraction that travels along the length of the digestive tract is known as what? Peristalsis
Circular muscle contactions that churn and mix the food material, not necessarily to propel it forward is called what? segmentation.
What are the activities of the digestive system controlled by? Nerves, hormones, and local mechanisms.
Gastrin A hormone secreted by cells in the stomach that stimulates gastric motility and secretion.
Secretin and cholecystokinin are examples of what? hormones from the upper part of the intestine
The constituents of structures such as muscle, enzymes, antibodies, some hormones, neurotransmitters, and nucleic acids. Also help transport other substances in the blood. Proteins
Mixing refers to... Smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in small segments
Peristalsis refers to... Propelling movement, Wave-like contraction and relaxation
Papillae Contains taste buds, lots on each papilla
# Teeth - Primary (deciduous) in children 20 - 10 pair
# Secondary (permenant) teeth 32 - 16 pair
The 3 areas of the Pharynx include ______ Naso, Oro, laryngopharynx
Where does swallowing reflex begin? Pharynx
How long is the Esophagus? 25 cm long
Is the esophagus posterior or anterior to the trachea? posterior
Food moves through due to ________ waves peristalic
Heartburn due to esophageal sphincter allowing stomach contents into esophagus
J-shaped pouch stomach
How much can the stomach hold? about 1 liter
What allows the stomach to expand? Rugae
Peritoneum serous membrane (like pleural) that attaches abdominal viscera (organs) to wall of abdominal cavity
Drapes abdomen, Contains much adipose (insulation and protection) and lymph tissue Greater omentum
Connects liver to stomach Lesser omentum
HCI Acid for chemiacal digestion
Pepsin Digests proteins
Buffers Protect stomach from eating itself
Chyme Food and gastric juice, Paste
How long do liquids stay in stomach? very short time
How long do fatty food stay in the stomach? 3-6 hours
Fastest to slowest movers in the stomach are... Carbs, proteins, then fats
What moves into the duodenum of the small intestine? Chyme
Where is the pancreas located? Behind the stomach
What is the function of the pancreas? Secretes digestive “cocktail” of enzymes to digest proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates
What is the largest internal organ of the body? Liver
What is the liver seperated by? 2 lobes separated by a falciform ligament
Attaches liver to abdominal cavity Liver
Functions of Liver Metabolise Glucose, Amino Acids and Fatty acids, Filters blood carrying nutrients, Stores Glycogen, Iron and Vitamins A D B12, Produces Bile and helps emulsify fat globules
What stores bile the liver makes and secretes it into small intestine when its needed Gallbladder
What joins the liver and the small intestine? Gallbladder
Duodenum Connects to stomach
Jejunum Part of small intestine stucture
Ileum Connects to large intestine
Mesentary Fold of the peritoneum, Suspends jejunum and ileum from perotineal wall
Projections of small intestine wall for increased surface area for nutrient absorption Villi
True or false? It takes approximately 3 –10 hours for chyme to move through the small intestine True
Peristaltic rush Causes diarrhea
The large intestine includes what structures? Colon, Rectum, Anal Canal, Anus, Vermiform appendix attached to ascending colon
Absorption of water and electrolytes Large intestine
Which intestine forms feces? Large
Intestinal flora – bacteria that breaks down what enzymes can’t like cellulose (corn) and gas Large intestine
Ingestion of food and water Large intestine
Produce and release chemicals to aid in digestion. (enzymes and acid) Large intestine
Hepatic portal system Movement of nutrients from GI tract to bloodstream aka Absorbtion
“Add” up molecules and body tissues Anabolism
Bricks are monosaccharides Carbohydrates
Bricks are amino acids Proteins
Bricks are Tryglycerides (Glycerol + 3 fatty acids) Lipids
“Cut” down molecules for fuel Catabolism
Done by a process of dehydration synthesis Anabolism
Small molecules are building blocks for macromolecules Anabolism
Done by process of hydrolysis Catabolism
Large molecules broken into smaller ones Catabolism
Protein broken into amino acids Catabolism
Carbohydrates broken into monosaccharides Catabolism
Lipids broken into glycerol + 3 fatty acids Catabolism
Chemical substances supplied by the environment that an organism needs to survive Nutrients
Macronutrients – needed in bulk Carbs, Proteins, Lipids, Water
Micronutrients - needed in small amounts Vitamins, minerals
Main energy source Carbs
In its absence, we utilize other energy sources such as fat and protein (gluconeogenesis) Carbs
Sugars (monosaccharides) Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
Disaccharides Sucrose = frucose + glucose, Lactose = glucose + galactose, Maltose = glucose + glucose
Maltose = glucose + glucose
Lactose = glucose + galactose
Sucrose = frucose + glucose
Glycogen How a body stores glucose
Daily carbohydrate requirement 125 – 175 g/day
Average diet of carbs = 200 – 300 g/day (too many)
Building blocks = triglycerides (glycerol + 3 fatty acids) Lipids
Cell membrane = phospholipids Lipids
Cholesterol Lipids
What are lipids important for? Cell structure (phospholipid bilayer), Hormone structure (cholesterol), Secondary fuel source
NO double bonds Saturated
has double bonds Unsaturated
Monounsaturated = 1 double bond
Polyunsaturated = 2+ double bonds
Hydrogenated = add H+ to unsaturated to make a saturated fat
is Chylomicrons good or bad cholestrol? The very worst
LDL Cholestrol Low-density lipoproteins
HDL high-density lipoproteins
Function of cholesterol Liver uses it to produce bile salts
Daily cholesterol requirements 30% daily calories
Essential amino acids (9) Threonine Tryptophane Methionine Valine Phenylalanine Histidine Leucine Isoleucine lysine
Essential = only obtained through food - Body can’t make them from other things
Taurine, arginine, carnithine essential in babies True
Main function of vitamins act as coenzymes (act with enzyme in the process of catabolism)
Fat soluble ADEK
Water soluble B group and C
Mineral Facts Elements other than C essential to human metabolism, From plants or by eating a plant-eating animal, Many functions (structure, nerve impulse, muscle movement, blood coagulation),
Major Minerals = Ca, P, K, Cl, S, Na, Mg
Trace Minerals = Fe, Mn, Cu, I, Co, Zn, Fl, Se, Cr
1 nutritional calorie (as opposed to chemistry stuff) = 1 Kcal True
1 Kcal = amount of heat needed to raise temperature of 1,000 grams of water by 1 degree C True
Caloric intake > output Causes weight gain and is a Positive energy balance
Caloric intake < output Causes weight loss and is a Negative energy balance
How many calories does it take to gain/lose one pound? 3,500
Rate a body expends energy under basal conditions Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Increase of 1 degree body temperature increases metabolic rate by 7% (and stays up for several hours after exercise FACT
Vasoconstriction of blood vessels, Shivering Heat promoting mechanisms
Heat loss mechanisms Main way body loses heat = radiation, Evaporation – sweat cools because it evaporates and takes heat with it
Contraindications to massage therapy Bleeding ulcer for one
Massage Therapy May help tone abdominal muscles TRUE
Conditions massage therapy can be useful for are... Gaseousness, Acid Reflux, Constipation
Created by: BAC



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