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What does the nasal cavity provide? warmth, moisture, filter, hair to catch particles.
What are the parts of the nasal cavity ? Conchae and Meatus
What are sinuses Air filled spaces in maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones
Functions of sinuses Reduces skull weight, Resonance chambers for voice, Help humidify and heat air entering the body.
Pharynx "Throat"
3 parts of the pharynx nasopharynx, oropharnynx, laryngopharynx
What are Eustachian tubes? auditory tubes that connect the internal ear to the pharynx open into the nasopharynx.
What part is at the base of the tongue? Lingual
Where is the palatine located? oropharynx
Larynx Voice box
What part is between the pharynx and trachea? Larynx
Includes the epiglottis, thyroid cartilage and cricoid carilage. Larynx
Anterior to esophagus Trachea "Windpipe"
C-shaped cartilage rings for protection, keeps it from collapsing Tracea
Distal or inferior to trachea Bronchi
Allows air into left and right lung Bronchi
Secondary bronchi- 3 on the right side, 2 on the left side
this is where gas exchange between the blood and the air begins Respiratory
Where gas exchange occurs Alveoli
How many layers of of epithelium does the Alveoli have? 1
Surrounded by Pleural membrane Lungs
Visceral Pleural Closest to the lung
Parietal Pleura outer membrane
the space in between the two layers. Filled with pleural fluid Pleural cavity
Due to sinuses in the cranial bones Resonance
Blood becomes oxygenated in the _________ of the lungs alveoli
Oxygenated blood travels back to the heart by the ________ vein. pulmonary
Stimulated by phrenic nerve Inspiration
Diaphragm moves down Inhale
Forced inhalation uses accessory muscles External Intercostals, Pectoralis major and minor, Sternocleidomastoid and Scalenes
Exhalation is mostly.... passive
Accessory Muscles for forced exhalation abdominal muscles, internal intercostals. Used during heavy breathing, exercise, coughing, straining, vomiting
Autoregulation pH, Temp, Oxygen, CO2
Voluntary control Motor neurons innervate respiratory muscles
Involuntary control by the respiratory center in the brainstem ( medulla and pons). Respond to levels of 02, C02 and H+ in the blood.
External respiration Gas exchange between alveoli (external air) and blood vessels within the alveoli
Internal respiration Gas exchange between blood and cells of body
RBCs carry 02 and CO2 Hemoglobin binds oxygen and CO2
Steps of Respiration External ->internal -> cellular -> internal -> external
Spirometry Measurement of air volumes
Tidal volume Amount of air to enter and leave in one respiratory cycle (Normal respiration)
Inspiratory reserve volume Amount of air in addition to resting tidal volume during forced maximum inspiration
Expiratory reserve volume Amount of air, in addition to tidal volume, that can be expelled from lungs
Residual volume Amount of air left in lungs even after forced exhalation
Vital capacity Inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume = x amount of air if take deepest breath possible
Inspiratory capacity Tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume = maximum volume a person can inhale following resting expiration
Functional residual capacity Expiratory reserve volume + residual volume = Volume of air remaining in lung after resting expiration
Total lung capacity Vital capacity + residual volume
Functional residual capacity Expiratory reserve volume + residual volume = Volume of air remaining in lung after resting expiration
Total lung capacity Vital capacity + residual volume =
pnea breathing
Eupnea normal breathing
Dyspnea Difficult, labored, or painful breathing
Apnea Cessation of breathing
Tachypnea Rapid breathing
Non-respiratory air movements Couch, sneeze, hiccup - they are spasms of the diaphram
Shiatsu Neurovascular holding points
Neurovascular holding points Shiatsu. Help relax and slow respiration. Anxiety, minor asthmatic reations, chronic respiratory disorders
Help facilitate better gas exchange All three respirations
Created by: BAC



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