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Immune and Lymph

Immune and Lymph System

Immunity the ability of the body to reseist infection and disease by activation of specific defense mechanisms.
Nonspecific immunity do not differentiate one type of threat from another.
Specific immunity develope defense specifically against one particular type of threat.
Defenses present from birth that include physical barriers, phagocytic cells, immunologic surveillance, liberation of a variety of chemicals, imfalmmation, and fever is what type of immunity? Nonspecific
Phagocytes white blood cells that patrol the tissue
microphages serve as what line of defense? "first line" of defense
Macrophages Modified monocytes of the circulation that have wandered into the tissues.
Natural Killer cells is a form of what type of immunity? nonspecific
What type of antigen is recognized by NK (natural killer) cells (type of lymphocyte)? Any antigen that is foreign to the body
What type of cell recognizes ALL cells that look different? NK cells or Natural Killer cells
Cytokines Small proteins that inhibit or facilitate normal cell function, such as cell growth and differentiation.
Cytokines are secreted by cells such as what? lymphocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells.
Non specific immunity include... physical barriers, phagocytes, surveillance, chemicals, inflammation, fever
specific immunity include innate, acquired - active and passive
3 lymphocytes are B cell, T cell and Natural Killer cell
What is a disease causing agent? Pathogen
Second line of defense phagocytes, NK cells, cytokines (interferons), enzymes
inflammation is what type of immunity? non-specific immunity
The process in which white blood cells are attracted to dead/injured,foreign tissue chemotaxis
interleukin 1 Causes hypothalamus to raise body temperature
What lowers blood iron levels which bacteria and fungi require to live Fever
Does a fever increase or decrease metabolic rate? It increases metabolic rate for phagocytic cells to attack more vigorously.
Specific Defense has a resistance to what? antigens
Antigen any substance that provokes an immune response
Cell mediated immunity involves what type of lymphocytes which travel to the site of the infection and destroy the microbe? T-helper lymphocytes
Humoral mediated immunity involves what type of lymphocytes that release antibodies into the bloodstream that travel to the site of infection? B lymphoccytes
A hepatitis shot is an example of _________ artificially acquired passive immunity
Bee sting, peanut allergy, etc. are what type of reaction? anaphylactic
An antigen that triggers an immune response Allergen
What type of allergic reaction may be due to unmatched blood? type II
What type of allergen may be due to household chemicals? IV
Is an artificially acquired passive immunity short or long term? very short
Is a secondary immune response usually shorter or longer than a primary response? Usually shorter because of memory cells
Is NON-Specific immunity present from birth? Yes
Is a specific immunity present from birth? No
Physical barriers include... Skin, Hair, Cilia, Reflexes, Digestive tract (vomiting), tears, sweat, nasal secretions.
During fetal development, undifferentiated lymphocytes released by _____________. Red bone marrow
What type of immunity has a direct contact between foreign agents and immune cells? Cell metiated immunity
What do T lymphocytes (T cells) do? They travel to infection site and destroy microbe. They destroy viruses already inside a cell.
What are the types of T cells? Helper, memory, cytotoxic, suppressor
What do B lymphocytes do? Release antibodies into the bloodstream, VERY specialized, Travel to infection site, bind to and destroy specific bacteria
Primary immune response 1st exposure to an antigen. Plasma cells (B cells) make antibodies aka immunoglobulins. T and B "remember" invader. You get the sickness.
Secondary immune response Memory cells react. Memory cells live a long time. Get slightly sick for a day or two.
Artificial Vaccines
Natural you get the disease
Acquired immunity - Active Your BODY makes the antibodies itself when exposed to a foreign organism
Acquired immunity - Passive Your body is GIVEN the antibodies
Is chicken pox Naturally acquired active immunity or Artificially acquired active immunity? Naturally acquired active immunity
Artificially acquired active immunity Vaccine (immunization) contains an antigen that produces a primary immune response but doesn’t produce such severe symptoms
Artificially acquired passive immunity Antibodies injected, Example: Hepatitis shot, Tetanus
Naturally acquired passive immunity Antibodies passed from mom to child during pregnancy. Passive: baby gets mom’s antibodies. Natural: not a vaccine
Anaphylaxis/Allergic Reactions Severe type I reaction. Hives, Bronchioles constrict, face, tongue, throat swell. Insect bites.
Type III Hypersensitivity Autoimmunity
Type IV - Cell mediated Delayed reaction allergy. Cell-Mediated - Involves T lymphocytes. Chemical exposure (household, cosmetics). Dermatitis. Takes 48 hours.
Created by: BAC



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