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CLS 290 Liver

What are the six biochemical functions of the liver: -Regulation of carb and lipid metabolis -Amino acid metabolism -Synthesis/Breakdown of plasma proteins -Storage of vitamins and metals -Detoxify medications -Excretory function
State the location of the liver Right upper quadrant, below the diaphragm and protected by rib cage
What blood vessel supplies the majority of blood to the liver? Portal Vein
What two cell types line the sinusoids? Endothelial cells Kupffer Cells
What carb is the liver dependent on as a source of glucose? Glycogen
What two pathways allow the liver to get glycogen? Glycogenolysis Gluconeogenesis
What enzyme found in the liver allows for the dephosphorylation of glucose-6-phosphate? glucose-6-phosphatase
State the source of energy that fuels gluconeogensis beta-oxidation
What hormone supresses gluconeogenesis? insulin
What building blocks of protein are stored in the liver? Amino acids
What is the most abundant plasma protein synthesized by the liver? albumin
Name the protein whose blood concentration determines the synthetic function of the liver. Plasma Alpha and Beta globulins
what is an acute phase response? A term which encompasses all of the systemic changes which occur in response to infection or inflammation.
What is the source of ammonia in blood? Catabolism of amino acids generates ammonia
How is nitrogen waste of the body made soluble and excreted by the body? the Urea cycle
What is the main source of nitrogen in the blood? Amino acids
What biochemical molecule begins the urea cycle? carbamoyl phosphate
What medical condition can lead to encephalopathy? inherited defects of any of the enzymes of the urea cycle can lead to hyperammonemia
name the three molecules that contain heme in the body -hemoglobin -myoglobin -cytochromes
list the precursor of heme fored from glycine and succinyl-CoA 5-aminolevulinate (5-ALA)
list the components of heme in order they are used in formation 1) 5-ALA 2) PBG 3) Uroporphyrinogen III 4) Coproporphyrinogen III 5) Protoporphyrin IX 6) Heme
What is jaundice? Yellowing of the skin
How is bilirubin formed? Catabolic product of heme.
what substance gives fecal matter its brown coloring? stercobilin
List the two components of a total plasma bilirubin unconjugated bilirubin conjugated bilirubin
decribe the function of the liver in drug metabolism the liver increases the hydrophilicity of drugs, making them able to be excreted
Describe phase I of drug metabolism by the liver Phase I: the polarity of the drug is increased by oxidation or hydroxylation catalyzed by a family of microsomal cytochrome P450 oxidases
describe phase II of drug metaolism by the liver Phase II: cytoplasmic enzymes conjugate the functional groups introduced in the first phase reactions, most often by glucoronidation or sulfation
What family of enzymes participates in the two phases of drug metabolism Cytochrome P450 genes
What effect would liver disease have on drug metabolism and drug dosage? Liver disease would impair drug metabolism, so drugs would have to be prescribed carefully.
what tests are included in a "liver panel" 1) bilirubin 2) albumin 3) transaminases: AST & ALT 4) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 5) gamma-glutamly transferase (GGT)
What is the biochemical involvement, cellular location and liver specificity of Alanine Transaminase (ALT) - involved in the interconversion of amino and ketoacids - found in the mitochondria and cytoplasm - specific marker of liver disease
What is the biochemical involvement, cellular location and liver specificity of Asparate Amino Transferase (AST) -involved in interconversion of amino and ketoacids - found in the mitochondria - not specific for liver disease
what two liver enzymes may be elevated in biliary tract obstruction (cholestasis)? Alkaline Phosphotase (ALP) Gamma-glutamyl Transferase (GGT)
What is hepatitis? Inflammatory disease of the liver
What is acute hepatitis? Short, common infectious cases
what is chronic hepatitis? inflammation persisting for more than 6 months
Created by: ashleywest16