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A&P Ch. 28

Pregnancy, Growth, and Development

Period prior to birth, tissue, organ, and system development Prenatal period
Period after birth, growth and some further development Postnatal period
Where does fertilization typically occur? high in the uterine tube
Begins with one zygote that splits completely Identical twins
Begins with two zygotes Fraternal twins
results from incomplete separation of twins Conjoined twins
Donor sperm is "injected" into uterus Intrauterine insemination
Sperm and egg combined in "test tube" In vitro fertilization
Stages of prenatal development Cleavage, Embryonic, fetal
Rapid mitosis, movement down uterine tube, occurs 30 hrs. to 2 weeks after conception Cleavage stage
Solid ball in uterine lumen Morula
Hollow ball of cells, pluripotent stem cells, embryo and trophoblast Blastocyst
What enzymes allow for attachment to endometrium Protyolytic enzymes
Trophoblast produces what? hCG
What does hCG do? Stimulates corpus luteum and development of placenta, Decreases immunity against blastocyst
Most critical stage of development, occurs from week 2-8 Embryonic development
Forms from inner cell mass, amniotic cavity forms Embryonic disk
Germ layer responsible for development of nervous system, skin, and special senses. Ectoderm
Germ layer responsible for development of muscles, bones, blood and lymph vessels, and kidneys Mesoderm
Germ layer responsible for development of the lining of the alimentary canal, urinary tract, and respiratory tract Endoderm
Nutrient, gas and waste exchange occur here? Placenta
Filled with amniotic fluid, surrounds umbilical cord. Amnion
Produces hematopoietic stem cells Yolk sac
Occurs from week 8 til birth, most changes are in size and proportion, skeleton develops, reproduction organs differentiate, brain development Fetal development
Opening between right and left atria in fetus? Foramen ovale
Connects pulmonary trunk and aortic arch in fetus Ductus arteriosus
lead from iliac arteries to fetal placenta Umbilical arteries
First 4 weeks of life, lungs inflate, foramen ovale closes, ductus arteriosus constricts Neonatal period
4 weeks - 1 year, rapid growth, teeth erupt, immunity increases infancy
Development of voluntary muscle control, social/communication skills, bladder and bowel control Childhood
Puberty occurs, reproductive maturity Adolescence
stage from age 20-60 Adulthood
Created by: Joshdole04



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