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A&P Ch. 27

Reproductive System

What are the system functions of the reproductive system? Gametogenesis, Gamete release, Gamete Fusion, Embryonic/fetal development, Delivery of newborn
Produces sex cells Meiosis
"Crossing over" of genetic material Recombination
Primary sex organ of male? Testes
Contain spermatogonia, and spermatogenesis occurs here? Seminiferous tubules
Testosterone synthesis, and secretion occurs here? Interstitial cells
Protects and supports testes & epididymis Scrotum
Sperm mature here? Epididymis
Pathway to urogenital tract Ductus Deferens
Passes through prostate gland, connects ductus deferens to urethra, smooth muscle contraction Ejaculatory Duct
What kind of secretions comes from the prostate gland? Alkaline secretions
What do alkaline secretions do? Neutralize acidic fluids of testes and vagina, promote sperm movement
What is the purpose of fructose in seminal secretions? Energy substrate
What do prostaglandins do? Stimulate vaginal contraction
What does the bulbourethral gland do? Provides mucous-like secretions for lubrication
What are the two parts of the erectile tissue in the penis? Corpus cavernosa, and corpus spongiosum
What is a charecteristic of type A spermatogonia? Divides through mitosis
What is a charecteristic of type B spermatogonia? Develops into primary spermatocytes
What are spermatids? immature sperm (no flagella)
What are spermatozoa? Mature sperm
Needed to make sperm motile Semen
How long do sperm live after ejaculation into female? 3-4 days
How many chromosomes does a haploid have? 23
What does the midpiece of the sperm contain? Mitochondria
How many sperm are in semen? 120 million/mL
How much semen is ejaculated? 2-5 mL
What conditions make sperm motile? Alkaline conditions
What is capacitation? Weakening of acrosome by vaginal secretions, must occur for fertilization
Arousal causes what activity? Parasympathetic activity
What is used as a vasodilator? Nitric oxide
Intense sexual stimulation causes what activity? Sympathetic activity
Period of "recovery" for males? Refractory period
GnRH is produced where? Hypothalmus
What does GnRH do? Stimulates the pituitary gland to produce FSH and LH
What does LH do in males? Stimulates interstitial cells to produce and secrete testosterone
What does FSH do in males? Stimulates spermatogenesis
What does testosterone do? Stimulates spermatogenesis (with FSH), development of secondary sex charateristics, Stimulates cellular metabolism, stimulates prostate gland and seminal vesicles
Primary sex organ of females? Ovaries
Passageway for sperm to ovum, and ovum to uterus uterine tubes
Development of embryo/fetus occurs here? Uterus
Inner mucous layer of uterus? endometrium
Smoothmuscle tissue of uterus? Myometrium
The vagina is normally under what condition? Acidic
Protects urogenetal openings, produces apocrine secretions Labia majora
Protects urogenetal openings, provides lubrication Labia minora
erectile tissue in females Clitoris
What stimulates the development of the breasts? Androgens
What are Oogonia? Stem cells
What does FSH do in females? Stimulates follicle development and maturation
What does LH do in females? Stimulates estrogen synthesis and secretion, Stimulates ovulation
What does estrogen do? Develops secondary sex characteristics, Thickening of endometrium, inhibits release of LH and FSH
What does progesterone do? Controls cyclic changes in uterus and mammary glands
First reproductive cycle? Menarche
Stages of ovarian cycle? Follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase
Stages of uterine cycle? Menstrual phase, proliferative phase, secretory phase
Created by: Joshdole04