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Reproduction+Male

Intro to the Reproductive System and Male Development

QuestionAnswer
Steps of Spermatogenesis 1.Spermatogonia 2.Primary spermatocyte 3.Secondary spermatocyte 4.Spermatid(immature)5. Speratozoa(sperm)
Division Cyle? 1. Interphase 2. Mitosis 3. Cytokinesis
Interphase G1 is when cellular contents are duplicated(except chromosomes) S is chromosomes duplicatedand G2 is cell double checks chromosoes for error
Klinefelter's syndrome XXY or XXYY male. breast growth, and some cognitive problems.
Non Dysjunction failure of chromosome pairs to separate properly during cell division.Failure of homologous chromosomes to separate in meosis I or sister chomatids in meosis II.
Turner's Syndrome X female. sterile, short stature. broad chest, webbed neck.
Male hormones processing begins with? Cholesterol
Describe male hormone process cholesterol to pregnenolone(broken down by Dehydrogenase)to Progesterone(hydroxylase) to Testoterone(5-alpha reductase) to DHT-Dihydrotestosterone.
What breaks down testosterone to estrogen? Aromatase
4 week old embryo indiffernt gonad stage. 1.Cells are gonocytes, epithelial, and mesenchyme. 2. Ducts are Wolffian and Mullerian
What happens before the 7th week? #1 Y chromosome gene called SRY(sex determining Region of Y chromosome) gets transcribed and translated a protein called the SRY protein which appears on the surface the indifferent gonad.
What happens before the 7th week? #2 Indifferent gonad turns into Testis Gonocytes turn into Spermatogonia Epithelial cells turn into Sertoli cells
What are sertoli cells and what do they do? produce SMI(spermatogenesis inhibitor) which stops cell division until puberty Produce MDI(mullerian duct inhibitor) Produce 5-Alpha Reductase
where do seminiferous tubules form? within the testis
some mesenchyme cells form into what? interstitial cells of Leydig outside of seminerferous tubules.
Inetstitial cells produce what? Testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA
Why is testosterone anabolic? because it promotes growth and maturation of bones, increase in erythropoiesis, increase in kidney growth.
DHT works on what? Genital tubercle...penis, scrotum, prostate,
What month does fetus have the phenotype of a male? on a 3 month old fetus.
Onset of puberty...what sets of puberty? there is a GnRH from the hypothalamus to the Adenohypophysis which then releases FSH & LH.
FSH does what to a male? promotes the growth of testis...the primitive sex cords--> semineferous tubules(sertoli & spermatogenesis)
LH does what to a male? increases testosterone secretions
What is speriation? immature spermatozoa is extruded in testicular fluid to the rete testis to the epididymis, BUT cannot fertilize and move independently because it needs LH
Sperm Maturation occurs as they travel to Epididymis. Spermatozoa acquire ability to swin. Storage and maturation in epididymis. requires increase in Testosterone.
how does ejactulation occur? depends on nerve impulses. goes from spermatozoa to vas deferens to penis
What is semen? spermatozoa and seminal fluid
What is seminal fluid? and its functions? produced by seminal vesicles and prostate glands. Its functions are to provide fluid medium for sperm passage, nutrients, buffer, and protective substance.
Cryptochidism? is the absence of one or both testes
What is the Ideal temperature of the scrotum? -2 degrees celcius
what is the histology composition of the penis? erectile tissue and fibruous Tissue
Bulbourethral Glands(cowper's gland) does what? secrete mucus fluid to lubricate end of penis
What are secondary sex characteristics? masculation: bones, skin, muscle, beard, hair, mustache, voice
what are the testosterone functions?? Essential for maturation and function of all mall accessory reproductive structures( epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate) Promotes development of smeinal vesicles and prostate.
Why else do we need testosterone? its required for proper spermatogenesis and speriogenisis.
What does Testosterone stimulate? Libido(acts on brain)
Hypopituitarism/Hypogonadism decrease production of Testosterone. Decrease FSH, LH production. Delayed Puberty. Eunuchoidism(absence of sex features), Cryptorchidism, Anosmia,Cleft Palate, Congenital Cranio Facial Asymetry
Hyperpituitarism increase estrogen production, decrease testosterone production, gynecomastia, Klline Felter syndrome, Jacob syndrome(XYY)
Erectile dysfunction impotence could be due to blood flow problem, nerve connections problem, psychological problems
How Viagra and similar drugs work? they work by dialating blood vessels to penis. increases blood flow in corpora cavernosa leading to erection. does not help with psychological issues causing Impotence
Specifically, how does Viagra work? Sexual stimulation increases release of Nitric Oxide to activate guanylate cyclase which turns GTP to cGMP. Viagra blocks cGMP from being degraded by PDE5..keeping vasodialation and erection...wooo!! XD
Drugs used for long and good sex? Viagra,Levitra(more potent than viagra), and Cialis( can last 3 days!)
Primary sex organs are...?? gonads, that produce sex cells and secrete hormones(androgen, E/T)
Testicular Cancer... usually ages 15-40, pain, sudden collection of fluid in scrontum, highly curable. Tumur markers: alpha-feto protein or beta-hCG
Prostate Caner... usually over 40, frwquent urination, pain. Tumor Markers: High PSA(prostate specific antigen) and/or High Acid Phosphatase (prostate enzyme)
Cancer Treatments... surgery( orchidecctomy or Prostatectomy, Chemotherapy, or radiation
Created by: VMarie1991