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Name the two classes of nucleotides Purine Pyrimidine
What three components make up a nucleotide? Nitrogen base 5 Carbon sugar Phosphate moiety
Name the two major purines found in DNA and RNA Guanine and Adenine
Name the two major pyrimidines found in DNA and RNA DNA: Thymine and Cytosine RNA: Uracil and Cytosine
What biochemical component begins the metabolism in the synthesis of IMP? 5-phospo-A-D-ribosyl-l-pyrophosphate PRPP
What pathway does the starting material of the synthesis of IMP come from? Pentose Phosphate pathway
Name the nucleotides that IMP serves as starting material for. Adenosine and Guanosine monophosphate
What is the purpose of the salvage pathway? It is the principal source of nucleotides for some parasites, etc.
State the final product of purine catabolism Uric Acid
Name the nucleotide that is the precursor of all pyrimidine nucleotides within a cell Uridine monophosphate (UMP)
What is the general source of nitrogen atoms needed in pyrimidine metabolism? Amino Acids (Asparate)
What is the benefit of combining several enzymes into a single multifunctional polypeptide? One protein can have multiple sequential enzymatic activities
How does methotrexate prevent the formation of TTP needed for DNA synthesis? Methotrexate inhibits the formation of thymidine. Stops cell replication/division.
What is the main structural difference between ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides? #2 carbon of the ribose has hydrogen instead of an OH group
What are the percentages of RNA and DNA found in cells? RNA: 90% DNA: 10%
Describe the structure of DNA Two intertwined complementary strands with hydrogen bonds holding them together. Base pairs are in middle while deoxyribosylophosphate chains are on the outside.
What are the pairings of nucleotides in DNA? Guanine-----Cytosine Adenine----Thymine
How many genes are in the human genome? 35,000 to 40,000
How many chromosomal pairs are in the human genome? 23 pairs
State genetic flow information in order to synthesize proteins DNA ---> RNA ---> protein formation
name the family of proteins found in chromatin and state the five classes Histones: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, H4
Which class of histones makes up the core? H2A, H2B, H3, and H4
Which class of histones stabilizes the wrapping of DNA around the core? H1
What are the 5 phases of the cell cycle? G1: growth prior to replication S phase: DNA synthesized G2: second grown phase M phase: cell division G0: growth and replication cease
What is the Origin of Replication in DNA? the site at which DNA replication is initiated
What is DnaB? The hexameric protein that binds to the separated DNA strands
What is excision repair? Cells use excision repair to remove alkylated nucleotides and other unusual base analogs, thereby protecting the DNA sequence from mutations.
What is deamination? When uracil bases are found in DNA, specific N-glycosylases remove them. This produces base-pair gaps that are recognized and cleaved at the site of defection
What is depurination? Single base-pair alterations, including purine-N-glycosidic bonds are liable so an estimated 3-7 purines are removed from DNA per second per cell.
What is strand break repair? Single-strand breaks are introduced by ionizing radiation. The breaks are repaired by direct ligation.
What is mismatch pair repair? Mismatch pair system enzymes are used to identify the mismatch and repair the strand by excision repair.
Define transcription interaction of enzymes and DNA in specific ways to produce an RNA molecule
What are the three stages of transcription? Initiation Elongation Termination
What are the three general clases of RNA Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Transfer RNA (tRNA) Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Explain the function of rRNA interacts with proteins to form a ribosome that provides the basic machinery on with protein synthesis takes place
Explain the function of tRNA adapter molecule that translates information stored in the mRNA nucleotide sequence to the amino acid sequence of proteins.
Explain the function of mRNA carriers of genetic information, defining the sequence of all proteins in the cell
What is the function of RNA polymerase? Responsible for the synthesis of RNA, using DNA as a template
Define translation Process that involves the interaction of enzymes, tRNAs, ribosomes, translation factors and mRNA in specific ways to produce a protein molecule capable of carrying out a specific cellular function.
Explain the role of ribosomes machine on which all proteins are synthesized
Explain the role of mRNA contains the information required to direct the synthesis of the primary sequence of the protein, although only a portion of that info is used to encode the protein
Explain the role of tRNA carries the amino acids that are to be incorporated into the protein
What is a codon? 3 nucleotides together
How many codons are necessary to make the 20 amino acids? 61 possible codons
What is the start codon? AUG
What are the stop codons? UAA, UAG, UGA
What is the "A" site? The site where a tRNA molecule sits before the amino acid is incorporated into the protein
What is the "P" site? The location in the ribosome that contains a tRNA molecule with the amino-terminal polypeptide of the newly synthesized protein still attached to the acceptor stem
State the nucleotide that initiates the ribosome complex GTP
What provides energy to the large/small ribosome complex as it moves along the mRNA? ATP
What three steps in human expression can be controlled? transcription post transcription translation
What type of cell tissue is associated with carcinomas epithelial cells
What type of cell tissue is associated with sarcomas? connective tissue or muscle cells
What types of cells are associated with leukemias? hematopoietic cells
How many mutations are needed to turn a healthy cell to cancerous? 3 - 7
What is an oncogene? Is it dominant or recessive? Genes the infect normal cells and transform them into tumor cells. They are dominant
What is a tumor suppressor gene? is it dominant or recessive? Gene that codes against cancerous replication. Recessive
What is aging? time-dependent deterioration of an organism
Name the four changes in muscle over time that aid in the aging process: Muscle fiber loss Decrease in muscle mass and strength ; skeletal muscles Decrease in blood supply to the muscles Increase in # of cells with mitochondrial deficiencies.
Created by: ashley_west16