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Ethics Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
Johannesen, Valde, Whedbee situation perspective: Makes judgments only in the light of each different context.
Merril & Bradley Offer negative judgements of an extreme situational perspective “When the matter of ethics is reduced to pure situationism it loses all meaning as ethics.”
Martinson Situational Ethics& public relations professionals advises practioners to pay close attention to the way rules & principles apply in particular situations. one must apply the same rules to himself that he would apply to others.
Diggs Believes a persuaders role, as defined by the specific situation, audience, & society should determine what criteria are appropriate for judging ethicality.
Alinsky presents an essentially situational perspective for evaluating the ethics of communication and persuasion as forces for societal change. Also developed 11 rules for ethical judgment.
Fletcher One premise of his Christian situation ethics is ethical judgments of human behavior,should be made in light of specific situational factors rather than according to prescriptive or absolute standards.
Veenstra & Kooi Christian Ethic for Persuasion B/c humans are created in God’s image, they are endowed capacity for ethical judgment.
Spero “Politics & Advertising” explains that unethical content of televised political advertisement presently cannot be banned/regulated through governmental law. Protected by the 1st amendment.
John Stuart Mill Practices he feels are ethically dubious: The hiding of facts & arguments, misstating elements of a case, misrepresenting an opponents views, name-calling, sarcasm, personal attacks etc.
Haiman Explores where our society should “draw the line against writing morality into law.” Has 3 criteria as guides.
Howell: “The ‘Social Utility’ Approach” Offers this approach for both public persuasion & for intimate communication, for both communication within a given culture & for intercultural communication between people of different cultures. Suggests 6 criteria that should be met.
Ruesch "There is no single set of ethical rules that control communication." Instead we have "to specify what purpose communication serves."
Marston “good end cannot be held to justify a bad means” (concerning advertising & public relations) “because democracy lives by the road it travels”.
Diggs:Chapter 7 “persuasion & ethics” “the kinds of persuasion excised on people are important elements in their logical & moral training” The way they persuade reflects their moral integrity.
Oliver “An audience that is induced to accept shoddy reasoning to support a right conclusion, at the same time, suffered the unfavorable effect of becoming habituated to false pleading” people cut themselves short & don’t get to the truth.
Bovee 6 questions to unravel degree of ethicalities
Bok: (lying & secrecy) Deception is the larger, more encompassing category.Lie:any intentionally deceptive message which is stated. Lies add to the power of liars & diminish the power of those deceived. Lying requires explanation, truth ordinarily does not.
Wellman utilitarian.“lying is wrong except to save a human life or to spare hurt feelings over unimportant issues.”
Wood “interdependent sense of self” endorses a concept of “dynamic autonomy”. Awareness of both being comfortable thinking & acting independently and cooperatively in relation to others.
Cissna & Anderson your self can only be as independent as your culture allows you to be- socially constructed independent self. (self is unique)
Williams & Goss Untruthfulness NOT = Ambiguity. All words contain some degree of vagueness and instead of being inherently bad, vagueness, like rhetoric appears to be an amoral means which can be applied to produce many different ends.
Nilsen certain context allow for vagueness & ambiguity. However, where decisions are being made intentional ambiguity may be highly misleading.
Condon & Yousof different cultures will express different logics. Each culture has a system based on its own assumption/ be cautious against criticizing against systems/ logics that aren’t similar to your own.
McLuhan hypothesis concerning visual, print orientation on Westerners conception of rationality. Reasoning doesn’t occur in a continuous, connected fashion. (ex. Greek vs. Chinese)
Brembeck & Howell Methods of critical thinking are culture bound. With in a culture, approved norms exist that function as universals. Ex: America: orderliness, accuracy, unity, etc. (universals of thoughtful deliberation)
Schwartz Leaves the impression that truth is completely irrelevant as a standard for electronic media, especially for commercial and political TV ads.
Ellul Does not view propaganda simply as a campaign of mass persuasion. He sees it as so pervasive and powerful in all aspects of contemporary technological societies that it is an injurious "menace which threatens the total human personality."
M. Cooper Grounds her view in the inherent human moral impulse variously termed obligation or CONSCIENCE. There are 3 responses.
Redding “There is something inherently present in any modern organization that facilitates unethical or immoral conduct.”
Jackall Modern organizations= vast systems of organized irresponsibility that erode internal/external standards of morality. What matters is not what a person is, but how closely his many personae mesh with the organization ideal.
May offers list of virtues: honesty, respect, benevolence, promise keeping, prudence, etc.
Williams & Murphy ethical choices shaped by individual choices and encouraged by our environments. Business org. can shape people so they don’t see ethical dimensions of the professional world.
Newell & Stutman Developed social confrontation framework: action formation stage: They have 7 situational features that influence people’s decisions to confront transgressors
Roloff & Paulson They note that not all instances of observed misconduct are addressed, and they propose using the social confrontation framework as a means for understanding why people choose inaction after observing ethical transgressions.
Cheney & Tompkins humans identify with humans, groups, objects, institutions, and symbols that they are perceived to be substantial commonalities of values, beliefs, attitudes, goals, language, nonverbal symbols, images, and even common enemies.
Bird An organization member’s “muted conscience” (moral muteness) is manifested in the usually unethical practices as: Moral silence, moral deafness, moral blindness
Solomon Aristotilian approach: encourage the growth of individuals, the business & society for the broader picture of excellence. Discuss basic business virtues: Honesty, fairness, trust, etc…
Stewart Sees the essence of interpersonal communication as centered in the quality of the communication among participants.
Condon explores a wide array of ethical issues that typically emerge in interpersonal communication settings: candor, social harmony, accuracy, deception, consistency of word and act, keeping confidences, and blocking communication.
Arnett While some concrete guidelines are necessary, we must simultaneously remain flexible to the contextual demands of the moment. He has the 3 propositions as ethical standards for interpersonal communication.
Griffin & Barnes Assume that while humans are essentially good by nature, there are realistic limits & constricting circumstances that most of the time limit achievement of ideal human potential.
3 ethical guidelines for trust 1. We should attempt to extend our trust of those around us as widely as possible. 2. Our trust for others should be tentative. 3. Trust should not only be given but it also should be earned.
Grice Views everyday conversation as one type of positive, rational human behavior. Assumes that contributions by participants should be appropriate for the purpose: quantity, quality, relation, manner
Rawlins Tension b/w freedom & responsibility for interpersonal & intimate communication. Focus on 4 topics: openness/ privacy/ protection/ deception.
Deetz Attempt to keep the conversation going. Genuine conversation should be “responsive to the subject matter of the conversation."Nature & character of humans are formed in communication interaction.
8 practices to avoid Disqualification Naturalization Neutralization Topical avoidance Subjectification of experience Meaning denial Pacification
Littlejohn & Habusch Ethical degrees/principles of caring and openness 1. Abdicated Responsibility 2. Ethical Responsibility 3. Irresponsibility 4. Unshared Responsibility
Ross He developed a series of prima facie duties- Duties that are reasonable/obvious without further proof as obligations if all other relevant factors are equal.
Prima Facie Duties Fidelity, reparation, gratitude, justice, beneficence
Bormann takes a political perspective based on the values central to the U.S. representatice democracy, especially on the four moralities developed by Karl Wallace.
Gulley Supports Thomas Nilsen’s concept of the good basic to our culture: Communication that enhances & nurtures human personalities is good; communication that damages, degrades, or stifles human personalities is bad.
Digg: 5 degrees we use to judge a person 1. Have the right to comm 2. Obligation 3.Morallity 4. Wise and Right 5. Demonstrates good reasons
3 levels for determining if a lie is justifiable: BOK 1. Scrutinize your own conscience 2. Seek Advise 3. Have opportunity for public debate
Created by: 1097640075
 

 



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