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Patho test 2, cont'd

blood flow (deoxy) Right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonic valve, pulmonary artery, lungs, (oxy) pulmonary vein, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta, the rest of the body  
cardiac impulse SA node → AV node → bundle of His →RBB/LBB RBB → RV → Purkinje fibers→ ventricular contraction LBB → LV → Purkinje fibers → ventricular contraction
SA node Location Junction of superior vena cava and RA “Primary Pacemaker of the Heart” Inherent firing rate 60-100 bpm Atrial Contraction Impulses cause atria to contract (must be conducted through myocardium for ventricular contraction)  
AV node Location Group of nodal cells RA wall above tricuspid valve Inherent rate 40-60 bpm Impulse conduction atria to ventricles Mediates conduction btw atria and ventricles
resting potential Movement of ions in and out of cell changes charge, thus changing it (usually negative); electrical potential of a neuron when not stimulated
action potential causes response in cell and this electrical impulse/charge may be passed on
depolarization When resting potential made less negative, cell does this and moves toward action potential
repolarization reverts back to resting state
refractory period- absolute Completely unresponsive (phases 1- rapid repol and 2- plateau); NO early depolarization
refractory period- relative Short time at end of phase 3 (final repol) ; Premature depolarization if very strong electrical stimulus; Premature contractions result (PAC, PVC); Increase risk of serious dysrhythmia
refractory period- causes Electrolyte disturbances (hypokalemia or hyperkalemia, hypomagnesemia); Hypoxemia; Acidosis; Hypothermia; Increase in catecholamines; Myocardial injury; Chamber enlargement
calcium mainly at nodes b/c slower movement; opening the channels for the plateau of the action potential
potassium for repolarization (short hyperpolarization period) and return to resting membrane potential
sodium rapid, spike-like onset of the ventricular action potential
EKG Traces of electrical currents detected by leads on skin; Detects electrical activity, primarily LV
P wave atrial depolarization
QRS ventricular depolarization
T wave ventricular repolarization
U wave repolarization of purkinje fibers
PR interval time needed for SA node stimulation, atrial depolarization, and conduction thru AV node, before ventricular depolarization
TP interval no electrical activity, time btw repolarization of ventricles and reoccurrence of activity at SA node
QT interval total time for ventricular depolarization and repolarization….. Specific calculations to correct QT interval for comparison secondary varies based on age, gender, and HR…… increased risk of lethal dysrhythmia if prolonged QT
ST segment represents early ventricular repolarization… analyze if above or below isometric line b/c sign of ischemia/infarction if not at baseline
V/Q ratio ventiliation/ perfusion Normal- »Normal ratio of ventilation to perfusion
Low V/Q (“Shunt”) MISMATCH ventilation < perfusion (bloodflow but no alveolar air) Ex: pneumonia, mucus plug
High V/Q (“Dead Space”) MISMATCH ventilation > perfusion (alveolar air but no bloodflow) Ex: pulmonary emboli, pulmonary infarct
Absence V/Q (“Silent Unit”) MISMATCH NO ventilation or perfusion (or severely limited) Ex: Pneumothorax
Olfactory 1 smell
Optic 2 visual acuity/fields
Oculomotor 3 move the eye and lid, pupillary constriction, lens accommodation
Trochlear 4 move the eye
Trigeminal 5 facial sensation
Abducens 6 move eye laterally
Facial 7 expression and muscle movement, salivation and tearing, taste, sensation in the ear
Acoustic (Vestibulocochlear) 8 equillibrium, hearing
Glossopharyngeal 9 Taste, sensation in pharynx and tongue, pharyngeal muscles, swallowing
Vagus 10 Muscles of pharynx, larynx, soft palate, Sensation in external ear, pharynx, larynx, thoracic and abdominal viscera, parasympathetic innervation of abdominal and thoracic organs
Spinal accessory 11 Trapezius and sternocleidomastoid strength
Hypoglossal 12 movement of the tongue
Created by: sccrgrl159



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