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Clinchem Test 4

J Sarge ClinChem Test 4 Comprehensive

QuestionAnswer
Amniotic fluid Liquid that surrounds the fetus in the amniotic cavity
Anencephaly A fatal congenital absence of or greatly reduced brain, particularly the cerebrum, resulting from failure of the neural tube to close during organ formation
Bence Jones protein Free light chains of the immunoglobulin molecule
Chain of custody Additional documentation of the condition of a specimen, all procedures performed, and personnel who have encountered a test specimen
Definitive test Highly sensitive and specific test in which results can be used as legal evidence
Diagnostic sensitivity The likelihood that, given the presence of disease, an abnormal test result predicts the disease
Diagnostic specificity The likelihood that, given the absence of disease, a normal test result excludes disease
Estradiol 18-carbon steroid molecule that is the main estrogen found in pregnant women
False negative Results below the decision limit in a patient who has the disease
False positive Results at or above the decision limit in a patient who does not have the disease
Follicular phase First half of the female menstrual cycle leading up to maturity of one follicle and release of a oocyte
Forensic testing Testing in which results can be submitted to help answer a question of law or as evidence in a legal decision
Half life One-half of the time between synthesis and degradation of a compound/time needed for the concentration of a drug to decrease by half
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) Classic hormone marker of pregnancy produced by the placenta after the fertilized oocyte implants
Luteal phase Second half of the female menstrual cycle following ovulation and the dominance of the corpus luteum
Macroglobulinemia Disease of plasma cells marked by excess production of immunoglobulin M (IgM)
Malignant Characterized by completely unrestricted cell growth with a tendency to spread
Medical decision limit The value for a test result that is used in making the diagnosis
Metastasis Tumor appearance in a different body site than the primary tumor of the same cell line
Minimum effective concentration The lower limit of the therapeutic range
Minimum toxic concentration The lower limit of the toxicity range
Monoclonal Arising from one cell line
Neoplasia Accelerated new cell growth, either benign or malignant
Nephrotoxicity Damage to the kidneys
Ovulation Cyclic release of an oocyte by the ovary
Paraprotein/M protein An abnormal plasma protein, such as a macroglobulin, cryoglobulin, or immunoglobulin/paraprotein visible in protein electrophoresis causing a tall peak in the densitometry pattern, also called an M spike
Peak The highest level of a particular drug found in the blood following administration
Pharmacokinetics The relationship of drug concentration to time
Pre-eclampsia A complication of pregnancy characterized by increasing hypertension, proteinuria and edema
Presumptive test A procedure with minimal complexity, instrumentation, and personnel requirements so that the results can be quickly determined
Progesterone Steroid hormone produced by the corpus luteum and placenta that prepares the endometrium for blastocyst implantation and maintains pregnancy
Receiver operating characteristics ROC curve A plot of the diagnostic specificity versus sensitivity of a test
Steady state Condition in which the average drug concentration remains in equilibrium after multiple intervals of drug dosage
Surfactant A substance that reduces the surface tension of the moist surfaces of solid tissue
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) Measuring serum levels of a drug to aid in adjusting drug dosage
Toxicity Poisoning due to exposure to a toxin, including drugs, gases, heavy metals, and alcohols
Trisomy Three copies of a chromosome instead if the normal two
Trough The lowest level of a particular drug found in the blood following administration of a dose and just prior to the administration of the next dose, after a peak in drug level
True negative Result below the decision limit in a patient who does not have the disease
True positive Result at or above the decision limit in a patient who has the disease
Tumor markers Surface molecules on tissue or proteins in serum that, in higher than normal quantities, are associated with the presence of malignancies
Uterus Hollow muscular organ located in the pelvic cavity of the woman in which the blastocyst implants and the fetus develops
Lavendar K2 EDTA-Plasma
Light Blue Sodium Citrate-Plasma
Grean Heparin-Plasma
Red Gray/Gold SST Clot activator-Serum
Red Top Glass no additive/Plastic clot activator-Serum
Yellow Sodium polyethanlo sulfate-Plasma
Pink EDTA-Plasma
Grey Sodium fluoride-Plasma
Dilantin Phenytoin
Tegretol Carbamazepine
Mysoline Primidone
Depakene Valproic Acid
Luminal Phenobarbital
What is the main urinary marker in prenancy HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadtropin)
What do HCG levels do during a normal pregnancy Levels dectectable ~22 days after LMP which is 8 to 11 days after conception. Levels rise exponentially more than doulble each weak during the first weeks.
HCG detection levels for pregnancy Usually set at 10 U/L. A lot of labs use 0-5 as negeative, 5-10 as gray zone with a comment to repeat testing in a few days.
Maturnal testing for open neural tube defects Testing done on maturnal serum at 16-18 weeks. Test usually include Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP), Estriol, and HCG. Referred to as a triple screen. Also for detection of down sydrome, trisomy 18.
What was the first test mandated for neonates PKU (Phenylketonuria)
What is the L/S ration reffering to in pregnancy To determine fetal lung maturity. Sphingomyelin is detected in amnionic fluid at a constant rate. Lecithin rises during gestation. When the L/S ratio gets to 2 to 1 or greater this is an indication of matue lungs
Other tests for fetal lung maturity Foam stability test. FLM by Abbott diagnostics. Lamellar body counts.
What are lamellar bodies and how are they tested Storage form of sufactant and are similar in size to a normal platlet. Lamellar bodies can be counted on any cell counter but must be verified and getting enough samples to do the verification is hard.
Cell/Tumor marker CA 125 Ovarian Cancer
Cell/Tumor marker CA 15-3 Breast Cancer
Cel/Tumor marker CA 19-9 GI Cancer
Created by: 1414395397