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# Biomechanics 2010

Leonardo da Vinci Functional anatomy
Giovanni Borelli Father of Biomechanics (book: De Motu Animatum)
Edward J. Muybridge Serial photographs; triggered multiple cameras in temporal sequence
Etienne-Jules Marey Chronophotographs; Machine gun camera (improved on Muybridge's technique); put sensors on body
Anatomical Reference Body parts involved in the movement and corresponding direction of movement
Key variables of kinematics Position, velocity, acceleration
Linear motion (translation) Rectilinear (straight path); curvilinear (curved path)
Angular motion (rotation) Body moves about an axis of rotation
Sir Isaac Newton Laws of motion
Newton's First Law of Motion Law of Inertia: A body at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by a net external force
Newton's Second Law of Motion Law of Acceleration: Sigma F=ma
Newton's Third Law of Motion Law of Action-Reaction: For every action, there is a reaction equal in magnitude and opposite in direction
External forces acting on body Gravity, Ground reaction force (normal force), Friction, Fluid forces (i.e. air resistance)
Internal forces acting on body Muscle force: force generated by muscle contractions
Factors affecting muscle force Muscle activation (neural input); physiological cross-sectional area; muscle length; velocity of contraction
Anatomical reference position Palms facing forward; head forward; feet slightly separated; arms hanging relaxed at sides
Inferior Towards the feet (trunk)
Anterior Towards front of body
Posterior Towards back of body
Medial Toward midline of body (horizontal directional term)
Lateral Away from midline of body (horizontal directional term)
Proximal Closer to trunk (limbs)
Distal Father away from trunk (limbs)
Anatomical references planes Sagittal, transverse, frontal
Sagittal plane Left and right (line through nose and belly button)
Transverse (horizontal) Superior and inferior (line parallel to unibrow)
Frontal Anterior and posterior (line cuts shoulder in half)
Planar movements Movement within a plane: movement is parallel to plane
Anatomical reference axes Longitudinal, anteroposterior, transverse
Longitudinal axis Transverse plane
Anteroposterior axis Frontal plane
Transverse axis Sagittal plane
Sagittal plane joint movements Flexion/extension; plantar flexion/dorsiflexion
Flexion Relative angle between 2 adjacent segments decreases
Extension Relative angle between 2 adjacent segments increases
Hyperextension Extension beyond anatomical position
Plantar flexion Point toes down into ground (ankle joint movement)
Dorsiflexion Point toes to the sky (ankle joint movement)
Frontal plane joint movements Abduction/adduction; radial/ulnar deviation; inversion/eversion; left/right lateral flexion; elevation/depression
Abduction Movement away from midline
Ulnar deviation Movement toward ulnar styloid (wrist)
Inversion Internal movement of foot at the subtalar joint; classic ankle sprain
Eversion External movement of the foot at the ankle
Left/right lateral flexion Leaning left/right at trunk or head; direction corresponds to the moving object
Elevation and depression Shrugging shoulders
Transverse plane joint movements Medial/lateral rotation; horizontal adduction/abduction; supination/pronation; left/right rotation
Medial (internal) rotation Anterior surface rotates medially
Lateral (external) rotation Anterior surface rotates laterally
Horizontal adduction Movement towards midline (hug)
Horizontal abduction Movement away from midline (release a hug)
Supination Rotate thumb laterally (hold soup)
Pronation Rotate thumb medially (dump soup)
Left/right rotation Anterior surface movement (shake head no)
Functions of the skeletal system Organ protection; weight bearing; lever system; mineral reservoir (Ca, P); Hematopoiesis (red blood cell formation)
Long bones Shaft plus two expanded ends; all bones of limbs (except carpals, tarsals, and patella); used for leverage; outer layer-compact bone; inner layer-spongy bone
Trabeculae
Short bones Roughly cuboid in shape; carpals (8) and tarsals (7); shock absorption and force dissipation; strength not mobility
Flat bones Thin, flattened, and usually curved; skull, ribs, sternum, scapula, ilium; provide protection
Sesamoid bones Short bone embedded within tendon or joint capsule; patella; alters muscle insertion angle; biomechanical advantage
Irregular bones Weird shapes that fit none of the other categories; vertebrae; protection (spinal cord), flexibility, load dissipation
Bone structure Tissue consisting of cells and a significant amount of extracellular matrix
Bone cells Osteoblasts; osteocytes; osteoclasts
Osteoblast Bone-building cell
Osteocyte Mature bone cell
Osteoclast Bone-digesting cell
Long bone structure Shaft; expanded ends; epiphyseal disks
Diaphysis Shaft of a long bone
Epiphyses Expanded ends of a long bone
Growth plates Epiphyseal disks of the long bone; cartilage separating epiphyses from diaphysis
Periosteum Double-layered membrane covering the external surface of the entire bone, except for the joint surfaces of the epiphyses
Outer layer of a long bone Fibrous connective tissue
Inner layer of a long bone Osteoblasts
Endosteum Covers internal bone surfaces of the long bone; contains both osteoblasts and osteocytes
Longitudinal bone growth Occurs near the epiphyseal disk; osteoblast activity > osteoclast activity; plate ossifies around age 18-25
Circumferential bone growth Continues throughout lifespan; widened medullary cavity
Mechanical loading of the bone Compression (push both ends in); tension (pull both ends out); shear (cut in half); torsion (twist around a transverse axis); bending
Wolff's Law The form of a bone being given, the bone elements place or displace themselves in the direction of functional forces and increase or decrease their mass to reflect the amount of functional forces; build up bones in response to a force (take away, lack of)
Osteoporosis Disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue (i.e. trabecular bone); osteoclast activity > osteoblast activity; affects more women than men (loss of estrogen in menopause)
Joints Exist wherever 2 or more bones meet; approx. 100; ALL human movement occurs about one or more joints
Classification of joints Fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
Fibrous joints Thick connective tissue; no movement; sutures-bone interlock (cranial bones); syndesmoses-bones held together by ligaments (distal tibiofibular: by ankle joint)
Cartilaginous joints Slight movement; synchondroses (costal cartilage, epiphyseal plate); symphyses-dissipate forces (intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis)
Synovial (diarthroidal) joints Free movement; ball and socket, condyloid, hinge, pivot, gliding, saddle
Ball and socket joint Triaxial; flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, abduction/adduction; shoulder, hip
Condyloid joint Biaxial; flexion/extension, internal/external rotation; knee
Hinge joint Uniaxial; flexion/extension; elbow, ankle
Pivot joint Uniaxial; supination/pronation; longitudinal axis; radioulnar joint
Gliding joint No axes: glides between 2 flat bones; carpals, tarsals
Saddle joint Biaxial; same as condyloid but greater ROM; thumb
Structure of a synovial joint Articular (hyaline) cartilage; fibrous capsule; synovial membrane; ligaments
Articular (hyaline) cartilage Smooth elastic tissue on ends of bone; mostly water; reduce wear, distribute load, absorb shock, low friction surface
Joint capsule Fibrous capsule and synovial membrane
Fibrous capsule Very fibrous collagen tissue used to hold bones together
Synovial membrane Lines the joint cavity; secretes synovial fluid; lubricates and provides nutrition
Ligaments Connect bone to bone; usually restrict ROM
Major bones of the upper extremity Scapula, humerus, ulna, radius, carpals (8), metacarpals (5), phalanges (14)
Major joints of the upper extremity Shoulder (glenohumeral); elbow (humeroulnar-elbow proper, proximal radioulnar); wrist (radiocarpal, distal radioulnar); metacapophalangeal (5 knuckles)
Shoulder joint bones Acromion process; scapula, scapular spine; humerus
Shoulder joints Glenohumeral joint; acromioclavicular joint, sternoclavicular joint, acromioclavicular, coracoclavicular
Rotator cuff Prevents your arm from launching off (in throwing, etc.); supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor
Shoulder flexion Anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, biceps brachii
Shoulder extension Latissimus dorsi, triceps brachii
Shoulder adduction Pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi
Shoulder abduction Intermediate deltoid
Shoulder scapular stabilization Trapezius
Elbow joint bones Humerus, radius, ulna
Elbow joints Humeroulnar joint (true elbow joint), proximal radioulnar joint
Elbow flexion Biceps brachii, brachialis
Elbow extension Triceps brachii
Wrist flexion Flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis
Wrist extension Extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis longus
Ulnar deviation Flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi ulnaris
Hand joints and bones Metacarpals, phalanges; metacarpophalangeal joints (5 knuckles)
Metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal flexion Flexor digitorum superficialis
Metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal extension Extensor digitorum
Segments of the Spinal Column Cervical (7), thoracic (12), lumbar (5), sacrum (5), coccyx (4)
Movement segment (vertebrae) 2 adjacent vertebrae + 1 intervertebral disk
Articulations of the spinal cord 2 transverse processes, 1 spinous process; Muscle attachment sites
Lordosis Too much lumbar curve
Kyphosis Too much thoracic curve
Trunk flexion Rectus abdominus, psoas major
Trunk extension Erector spinae group
Lateral flexion/rotation Internal and external oblique
Major bones of the lower extremity Pelvis; femur; tibia; fibula; patella; tarsals (7): talus, calcaneous; metatarsals (5); phalanges (14)
Major joints of the lower extremity Hip, knee, ankle, subtalar, metatarsophalangeal
Pelvic girdle Ilium, pubis, ischium
Ball and socket joint of the hip Acetabulum + femoral head; highly mobile
Ligaments of the hip joint Iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral
Pubofemoral ligament Limits hyperextension, abduction
Hip flexion Iliopsoas (groin), rectus femoris (part of quads), sartorius ("Tailor's muscle")
Hip extension Gluteus maximus, hamstrings (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris)
Hip abduction Gluteus medius (role in bipedal gait)
Hip pointer (ultimate) Iliac crest fracture
Knee joint bones Femur, femoral condyles, menisci, patella, tibial plateaus, tibia
Knee joint ligaments Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); lateral collateral ligament (LCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL)
Cruciate ligaments Limit anterior/posterior sliding (of the tibia with respect to the femur); ACL, PCL
Collateral ligaments Limit abduction/adduction; LCL, MCL
Knee extensors Quadriceps (vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris)
Knee flexors Hamstrings (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris), gastrocnemius, sartorius
Ankle joint parts Fibula, tibia, medial malleolus, lateral malleolus (malleoli limit inversion/eversion), talus
Dorsiflexion (ankle) Tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus
Plantar flexion (ankle) Gastrocnemius, soleus
Subtalar joint bones Talus, calcaneous, metatarsals, phalanges
Subtalar ligaments Lateral collateral ligament (limits inversion), deltoid ligaments (limits eversion)
Inversion (subtalar) Tibialis anterior
Eversion (subtalar) Peroneus longus
Metatarsophalangeal flexion Flexor digitorum longus
Metatarsophalangeal extension Extensor digitorum longus
Created by: ktpognc

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