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stcc Electrolytes

QuestionAnswer
anion negative charge; move toward positive anode
cation postive charge; move toward negative cathode
active transport mechanism that requires energy to move ions across cellular membranes
diffusion passive movement of ions across a membrane; depends on size/charge of ion, nature of membrane
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) vasopressin; controls osmolality; natual response to thirst
osmolality physical property of a solution based on the concentration of solute per kilogram of solvent
decreased blood vol response vol receptors/thirst sensation; secration of epinephrine/norepinephrine; production of angiotensin II; decreased GFR
increased blood vol response release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP); vol receptors; increase GFR; increased plasma sodium
osmolality determination as freezing point increases, vapor pressure decreases
osmolality ranges serum 275-295mOsm/kg; urine(24hr) 300-900mOsm/kg; urine/serurm ratio 3.0-1.0
sodium major extracellular cation; major function is determining osmolality of plasma
sodium regulation controlled by intake of water, water excretion, blood volume status
sodium balance extra/intracellular balance through active transport
hyponatremia sodium levels less than 135mmol/L; vomiting, diahrrea, severe burns
hypernatremia sodium levels greater than 145mmol/L; excessive water loss, decrease water intake, increased intake/retention
specimens for testing sodium levels serum, plasma, urine, CSF
testing methods for sodium ISE (semipermiable membrane) or chemical
potassium major intracellular cation; major function-regulate neuromuscular excitability (heart contractions) and control of hydrogen ion concentration for acid base balance
potassium regulation through the cells and kidneys
hypokalemia potassium levels lower than 3mmol/L; GI loss, renal loss
hyperkalemia potassium levels greater than 5mmol/L; cellular shifts, increased intake, decreased renal excretion
specimens for testing potassium serum, plasma, urine
testing methods for potassium ISE using a valinomycin membrance
hemolysis will effect results for these electrolytes potassium, phosphate, chloride
potassium ranges plasma, serum 3.4-5.0mmol/L; urine(24hr) 25-125mmol/day
sodium ranges serum, plasma 136-145mmol/L; urine(24hr) 40-220mmol/day; CSF 136-150mmol/day
chloride major extracellular anion; functions- body hydration, ionic neutrality, blood volume, maintain osmotic pressure
chloride shift chloride maintains neutrality in RBCs where bicarbonate diffuses out of the cell while chloride diffuses into RBC
specimens for testing chloride serum, plasma, sweat
testing method for chloride ISE or colormetric
sweat test diagnoses cystic fibrosis
chloride ranges plasma/serum 98-107mmol/L; urine(24hr) 110-250mmol/day
bicarbonate ranges serum/plasma 22-29mmol/L
bicarbonate 2nd most abundant extracellular anion; function-buffer blood formed from CO2 within cells
bicarbonate regulation electrical neutralility
metabolic acidosis bicarbonate combines with H+ producing CO2--> exhaled in lungs
metabolic alkalosis retention of bicarbonate
hyperchloremia excessive loss of bicarbonate ions; caused by GI losses, RTA, metabolic acidosis
hypochloremia excessive loss of chloride; caused by vomiting, diabetiv ketoacidosis, increase levels of HCO3
specimens for bicarbonate testing serum, plasma; must remained capped
method for testing bicarbonate ISE or enzymatic (NADH measured)
magnesium 2nd most abundant intracellular ion, 4th most abundant cation; function- essential cofactor for enzymatic reactions
magnesium found in these body sites bone, intracellular, extracellular
magnesium found in these forms extracellulary free ionized, bound to protein, complexed to anions
regulation of magnesium diet, through kidney reabsorption/excretion
specimens for testing magnesium serum, plasma
magnesium ranges serum, plasma 0.63-1.0mmol/L
testing methods for magnesium colormetric using formazen, methythymol dyes
calcium divalent cation (2pos charges)
calcium found bone, heart muscle, clotting factors
forms of calcium in plasma bound to protein, complexed to anions, free/ionized
hormaones that control calcium parathyroid (increases); vitamin D (increases); calcitonin (decreases)
specimens for testing calcium serum, plasma
testing method for calcium ISE; colormetric, using ortho-cresolphthalein complexone(CPC) or arsenzo III
phosphate major intracellular anion; functions- component of DNA/RNA, coenzyme for enzymatic reactions, enery source, buffer for the release of O2 from hemoglobin
phosphate regulation by renal excretion/reabsorption and by hormones - PTH, vitamin D, growth
specimens for phosphate serum, plasma
highest levels of phosphate in the morning
testing method for phosphate and wavelength colormetric- using ammonium phosphomolybdate complex (340nm) or molybdenum blue (600-700nm)
phosphate ranges serum/plasma - child 1.45-1.78mmol/L, adult 0.87-1.45mmol/L; urine(24hr) 13-42mmol/day
lactate end product of anaerobic glycolysis; function-early indicator of oxygen deprivation
gluconeogenisis process occuring in liver that converts lactate back to glucose
tesing method for lactate enzymatic--> coupled with peroxidase to form a color
collection requirements for lactate no tourniquet used and no prior exercise; specimen delivered on ice and separated quickly
lactate ranges venous- 0.5-2.2mmol/L; arterial 0.5-1.6mmol/L; CSF 1.1-2.4mmol/L
anion gap approximation of the difference between unmeasured anions and unmeasured cations
Created by: cjbarnes78