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British Lit.

Chapter 7

Utilitarianism An ethical syst. developed by Jeremy Betham (1748-1832) based on human desire for pleasure rather than pain and, politically on principle of greatest good for greatest #. Secularist prog. of reform. Reinforced in 1859 by Lyell's Principles of Geo.
Transcendentalism (originating among disciples of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)) Sought a higher relig. view than Christianity and a higher artistic ideal than neoclassicism.Its God is a Word Spirit inhabiting all.Its Bible is Nature and human heart. Access to truth-through intuition rather than through reason/revelation.
"On Heroes, Hero-Worship, & Heroic in Hist."-Thomas Carlyle Has hollow sound. Objectionable to Christians as attempt to suply relig. faith with human object of worship in supposed absence of a divine. Disbelief=sympt. of spirit. disease. Age unable 2 believe in good.= age unable 2 believe in God.
Carlyle's lectures in "On...Hist." 6 versions of hero: God=Odin prophet=Mahomet poet=Dante & shakespeare priest=Luther & Knox man of letters=Johnson, Rousseau, Burns king=Cromwell & Napoleon (4 while)
"The Poet"-Alfred, Lord Tennyson 4 idea of poet & his mission-Tennyson indebted 2 Shelley & Carlyle
from In Memorium- Alfred, Lord Tennyson a contemporary lyrics=took 16 yrs, arranged in theme. sequence(show grad. restore. of faith in providential purpose & human immortality. Prologue added-more Christ. tone. Prompted by grief 4 Hallam. About central concern 4 late Vict. lit. (faith vs doubt)
"Morte d' Arthur"-Alfred, Lord Tennyson pub. in 1842 incorporated into Iddylls of King-book 12. Arthurian legend shaped into vehicle of soc. comment-show decay of spirit exhaust. soc. & possible. of its renew.
"Ullysses"-Alfred, Lord Tennyson Written soon after Hallam's death. Gave need 4 go. 4ward & be brave. Speaker in monologue=hero of Homer's Odyssey. Restless-returned to his Ithica kingdom from 20 yrs. of war & wander. Compelled 2 renew travels, leave kingdom under rule of Telemachus.
"Crossing the Bar"-Alfred, Lord Tennyson Poem. Imagines death as return 2 sea-idea with evolution theory. "Pilot"=Divine, unseen guide. Mission of relig. reconcile= noble farewell-Christ. & Transen. ways.
"Prospice"-Robert Browning Poem from Dramatis Personae Expresses his faith in immortal. (assurance of reunion with dead wife)
"Home Thoughts from Abroad"-Robert Browning Poem. Composed during visit 2 Italy in 1884. Contrasts gaudy brilliance of Italy flowers & quiet beauty of Eng. spring
Created by: AndieSmiles