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Kines 2 Test

QuestionAnswer
How many vertebrae are there 33
There are 5 parts to the vertebral column, list them cervical, thoracic. lumbar, sacral and coccygeal
List the jobs of the spine Pivot point for head anchor for pelvis allows for stability and mobility protects spinal column
Movement in the vertebral column is ___-axial Tri-axial
What planes does the vertebral column move in Saggital, Frontal, and horizontal
What movement does the spine do in Saggital plane flexion, extension, hyperextension
What movement does the spine do in the frontal plane lateral flexion
What movement does the spine do in the horizontal plane rotation
What vertebrae has NO rotation C1
Why is the lumbosacral joint important? It joins the vertebral column and the pelvis
If the pelvis moves, what also moves the vertebral column
Why do we have vertebral curves for strength and support
Name the two types of curves Lordosis and Kyphosis
Describe Lordosis Anterior curve an inward curve (happens with pregnancy)
Describe Kyphosis Posterior curve outward curve
If you have Kyphyosis, what types of changes could you see tailbone would tuck Lumbar spine flattens And hypertension on cervical area
What is an example of abnormal kyphosis Spina bifida can case kyphosis thoracic
List the benefits of neutral pelvic tilt weight across the femurs evenly erect spine allows for wt. shift anterior, posterior, lateral functional position for seated position
Describe anterior pelvic tilt ASIS tips to the front Soup is coming out
What problems can anterior pelvic tilt cause Greater Lordosis in lumbar spine CoG shifts forward
What can cause an anterior pelvic tilt Pregnancy, overweight in abdominal region, muscular imbalance, hypertoncity (CP)
Describe a posterior pelvic tilt ASIA tips backwands Soup is being held in
What problems can pelvic tilt cause Tail bone tucks flattening of lumbar spine (kyphosis) can cause cervical hyperextention
What kind of issues can occur if you have anterior pelvic tilt when you you are sitting? Pushes you forward
What kind of issues can occur if you have posterior pelvic tilt when you are sitting? Slumping and could slide out of the chair
How could anterior pelvic tilt be used in therapy? With a downs child, you can anteriorly tilt them to help them sit up more properly
How could you use posterior pelvic tilt in therapy? With CP, you can posteriorly tilt them to bring them into a more relaxed natural tilt
Define Sitting Balance ability to maintain sitting without falling
What skill is essential for functional independence Sitting Balance
Sitting Balance is a _____ and a ____ skill Complex and Dynamic
When does development of postural control happen? From birth to adolescent
If sitting balance is a problem, what area of the body should you look to first? the trunk
Define pelvic rotation one ASIS is moved anteriorly
Define pelvic obliquity one ASIS is moved superiorly
What kind of pelvic problems can happen with scoliosis pelvis obliquity
Define Scoliosis lateral curvature of vertebrae
What are two types of scoliosis? Structural (irreversible) non-structural (reversible)
What is the layer between the vertebrae Intervertebral discs
What is the job of the intervetebral discs shock absorption
What holds the interveterbral discs held into place my ligaments
List the Cervical spine vertebrae C1-C7
There are two special cervical vertebrae, name them C1-Atlas C2- Axis
Describe C1 and tell its job No body; -flexion and extension -Support of cranium
Describe C2 and tell its job -has the dens (tooth like) -rotation -keeps C1 stable
If the dens is smaller then normal, what can this cause? instability
What is the job of the body of the vertebrae it is the weight bearing part of the vertebra
What are the jobs of facets to articulate between vertebrae and ribs
What is a foramen opening
What is the intervertebral foramen happens between vertebrae
What is a vertebral foramen space for the spinal cord
What is a transverse foramen for arteries to go through
What is the job of the tranverse process? to attachs ligaments to the spine (for muscles)
What is the job of the spinous process? attaches ligaments to spine as well
What part of the vertebrae forms the spinal canal? Lamina
How many intervetebral discs do people have? 23
What is the annulus? The external, harder part of the disc
What is the nucleaus pulposus the internal more gel-like substance
What are common disc injury slipped, herniated, prolapse
What can a slipped disc do to spinal root nerve can be compressed
What are the names of the thoracic vertebrae T1-T12
What is the most stable part of the spine thoracic
What part of the spine is the rib cage joined to Thoracic
The thoracic spine is joined with the ribs, how does this impact the movement of this part of the spine limits flexion, lateral flexion
Which way does the spinous process point in the thoracic area and why is this? inferiority -it prevents hyperextention (helps to not squish ribs)
What is the job of the lumbar spine supports weight of upper body
What are the largest vertebrae Lumbar
What part of the spine has the most injuries Lumbar
What part of the spine has bigger articular processes Lumbar
What happens to the movement in the lumbar area due to the larger articular processes Limited ROM Flexion and extention are possible Limited rotation
Describe the sacral vertebrae 5 fused vertebrae
Describe the coccygeal vertebrae 4 rudimentary vertebrae
What section of the spine has no nerve roots Coccygeal
What section of the spine has no movement coccygeal
Which ribs go to the sternum and what is their name First 7, called True ribs
What ribs attache via cartliage to sternum 3 after the first 7 false ribs
What ribs do not attach to the sterum last 2- floating ribs
What kind of muscles are between the ribs intercostal muscles
What is the job of the intercostal ribs aide in respiration
What provides support for the upper extremities (not the spine) rib cage
What are the three bones of pelvis girdle sacrum and two iliac bones
There are three joints involved in the pelvic girdle, name them pubis symphysis, sacroiliac joints
What do the joints of the pelvic girdle provide? Limit mobility Provide stability
There are two types of ligaments for the spinal colum Intrasegmental intersegmental
What is Intrasegmental hold vertbrae together
What is the job of the intersegmental ligaments prevents excessive motion
Where is the anterior longitudial ligament located along the bodies of the vertebrae (anteriorly)
Where is the posterior longitudial ligament located along the bodoes of the vertebrae (posteriorly) inside the spinal column
What does the anterior longitudinal ligament limit? hyperextension
What does the posterior longitudinal ligament limit Flexion
Where is the supraspinatous ligament? posterior of spinous process and limits flexion
What is the Nuchal ligament thicker and stronger version of the supraspinous ligament from C7 up
If you have anterior contraction what happens? Flexion
if you posterior contraction what happens? extension
If you have unilateral contraction What happens lateral flexion or rotation
What connects the rectus abdominus linea alba
What does the rectus abdominus do -Flexs trunk -aides in respiration -compression of organs
What are external obliques One layer down from rectus abdominus run diagonally
What is the job of the external obliques? Allow for flexion aid in exhalation compression of
If you have unilateral contraction of the external obliques? lateral bending to the side of the contraction rotation to the opposite side from the contraction
Where are the internal oblieques under the external obliques fibers run opposite of the external obliques
What is the job of the internal obliques flexion
If you have unilateral contraction of the internal obliques what happens Lateral and rotation to the same side
What two muscles can work together to strengthen rotation and bending internal and external obliques
Which is the deepest muscle of the abdominal group Transverse
Which direction does the muscle fibers run horizontal
So what is the job of the transverse muscle? no joint motion compresses abdomen
What is the valsaval maneuver? involuntary compression to help in child birth, defecation, coughing
Where is the erector spina group? Along the spinal column
What does the erector spina group do? Extension and help hold you upright
If you have unlateral contraction of the erector spinae group bending
name the three layers of erector group Deep, Mid, superficial
Where is the quadratus lumborum a square on the lumbar region
What does the quardratus lumborum do? -pelvic elevation -lateral bending -helps with pelvic alignment -Very important to walking
What is another term for pelvic elevation hip hiking
What is reversal of muscle function where the origins towards the insertion
Name an example of reversal of muscle function Hip Hiking
What muscle can pelvic tilt cause overstretching and cause problems with the UE? Lattissimus Dorsi
Where does the Lattissimus Dorsi insert? And what does this muscle affect? Hip bones, Sitting position
Name some reasons why muscles are looked at by OTs - Balance of muscle required for upright posture - weakness and tightness impact orthopedic - lack of mvmt can lead to contractures of the muscle
Where is the sternocleidomastoid? goes from the sternum to the mastiod process fo the skull
What does the sternocleidomastoid do? neck flexion unilateral contraction leads to same side bending and opposite side rotation
List the function of the LE -enable upright position -maintain equilibrium - provide support for body weight - shocl absorption during walking and running - assist in pushing off the ground (walking)
List some of the roles an OT might perform with the LE - transfer training -sitting and standing balance - safety - use of adaptive equipment - ADL -IADL or other occupations
What enables mvmt for gait and ambulation for mobility? LE
What is ambulation process of moving from place to place
Why would an OT need to collborate with the PT? So that duplication of services does not happen
What are the functions of the pelvis posture balance stablity influences LE
List the Hip Motions flextion, extension abduction, adduction internal and external rotation
What are the motions of the knee Flexion and Extension
What are the motions of the ankle? plantarflexion dorsiflexion inversion eversion
What are gait patterns boyd functions commonly looked at by an OT
Why would an OT care about gait patterns? - reflect distance traveled (what the heck?) - identify absense of common characteristics of gait -ensure safety, prevent injury
What re the two phases of the gait cycle? stance and swing
List the 5 steps in Stance heelstrike foot flat mindtance heel off toe off
What percentage of the gait cycle is stance? 60 Percent
WHere are patients more likely to have issues? Stance or Swing Stance
list the three parts of Swing acceleration midwing decleration
What percentage of the gait cycle is swing 40 percent
What is single support mean when you are talking about gait cycle the part of the cycle where only one leg is in contant with the ground
What is double support mean when you are talking about gait cycle the part of the cycle where both feet are in contact with the ground
What is Stride Length from right heel strike to the next right heel strike
What is step lenght from righ theeel strike to the left heel strike (or the other way around)
What is step width how far apart are the two heel strikes (right and left)
What gait problems do you see with foot drop? No heel strike is present
how does your CoG change as you walk (in a normal gait pattern) Your CoG shifts R and L and up and down as you walk. It can go two inches in any of those directions
How does your UE affect your gait arm swing and trunk rotation
Created by: Niccole2