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Speech Anatomy

Physiology of Phonation

Neurochronaxic Theory the length of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is 10cm longer on the left
Myoelastic-aerodynamic Theory sub-glottal pressure, bernoulli effect and tissue force
Cover body Theory there are two masses in the vocal folds- connected to each other by a spring (hula dancing)
Rate of flow will increase in a tube at a point of constriction
Bernoulli effect as velocity increases, pressure decreases (energy is constant) and pressure is perpendicular to airflow
Sub-glottal pressure what pushes the vocal folds open
Tissue force recoil (elasticity of the vocal folds)
Glottal Cycle opening, closing and closed phases
In the closing phase... the vocal folds are still open (getting ready to be closed)
Jitter timing variablity between glottal cycles
Shimmer amplitude variability between glottal cycles
Laryngeal functions for speech rocking, gliding and rotating
Rocking lateral, oblique, and transverse arytenoids
Gliding thyromuscularis
Rotating Lateral CricoArytenoid (LCA) and Posterior CricoArytenoid (PCA)
Attack process of adducting the vocal folds
Termination process of abducting the vocal folds
Types of attacks simultaneous, breathy and glottal
Simultaneous attack adduction and respiration at the same time ("zip")
Breathy attack respiration begins before the vocal folds adduct ("harry")
Glottal attack adduction of vocal folds before respiration ("okay")
Perceptual terminology pitch, loudness, length
Acoustic terminology frequency, intensity, duration
Interspeaker changes increase in length, decrease in frequency
Intraspeaker changes increase tension, increase frequency increase mass, decrease frequency increase sub-glottal pressure, (slight) increase of frequency
Pitch raising mechanisms Cricoarytenoid, thyroarytenoid, PCA, increase in sub-glottal pressure
What does the cricoarytenoid do to raise pitch? It tilts the thyroid cartilage forward?
What does the thyroarytenoid do to raise pitch? It tenses the vocal folds
What does the PCA do to raise pitch? It prevents anterior sliding of the arytenoids
Pitch lowering mechanisms Passive (tissue elasticity), active lowering (thyroarytenoid/thyromuscularis) and decrease in sub-glottal pressure
What is included in passive lowering of pitch? tissue elasticity
What is included in active lowering of pitch? thyroarytenoid and thyromuscularis
Optimal pitch vocal fold vibration that is most efficient/appropriate for an individual
Optimal pitch varies as a function of what? age, gender and size (not all-inclusive)
Habitual pitch fundamental frequency usually used (ideally this is close to the optimal pitch)
Pitch range the difference between the lowest and highest fundamental frequencies
For most people pitch range is... about two octaves
Optimal pitch for a female is... 210Hz
Optimal pitch for a male is... 125Hz
Optimal pitch for a child is... 300-400Hz
The four states of the glottis: modal, creaky, breathy, whispered
Modal: space between the glottis is normal- normal voicing
Creaky: arytenoid cartilages are held so tightly that the vocal folds only vibrate on the anterior portion
Breathy: vocal folds vibrate, but are held loosely- air escapes
Whispered: vocal folds DO NOT vibrate, but are tense and tight
Modal register: pattern of vibration used in normal speech- 2 octaves- frequency usually between 125Hz and 500Hz
Pulse register (glottal fry): Folds are very thick and relaxed, and sub-glottal pressure is low. A smaller secondary wave often accompanies every cycle of fundamental. Frequency is usually between 75Hz and 125Hz
Falsetto register: vocal folds become lengthened and extremely thin. Vibrate along the margins and make contact only briefly. Frequency usually between 500Hz and 1000Hz
Vocal Pathologies: Tumor, infection, abuse, psychogenic and organic
Types of infections: virus, bacterial, fungal
Types of organic pathologies: paresis, paralysis, tremor and age atrophy
Types of misuse: vocal or screamer’s nodules, smoker’s edema, ulcerations, and physical trauma
Created by: deezer