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ABSITE cell biology

What are desmosomes/hemidesmosmes? adhesion molecules (cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix), which anchor cells
What are tight junctions? cell-cell occluding junctions and form an impermeable barrier
What are gap junctions? allow communication between cells (connexin subunits)
What are G proteins? Intramembrane proteins, transduce signal from receptor to response enzyme
What is ligand-triggered protien kinase? Receptor and response enzyme are a single transmembrane protien
What is a cell membrane? A lipid bilayer that contains protiens, enzymes, and receptors, cholesterol increases membrane fluidity
True or False: cells are negative on the inside compared to the outside. True, based on Na/K ATPase (3Na out/2 K in)
What are the major cations? Na, K, Ca, Mg
What are the major anions? Cl, HCO3, SO4, HPO4, protien, organic anions
What are ABO blood type antigens? Glycolipids on cell membrane
What are HLA type antigens? Glycoprotiens (Gp) on cell membrane
What is osmotic equilibrium? Water will move from an area of low solute concentration to high solute concentration
G1 phase of cell cycle Cell contents duplicate, Protein synthesis, most variable, determines cell cycle length
S phase of cell cycle Chromosomal duplication
G2 phase of cell cycle Metabolic changes, prepare for mitosis
M phase of cell cycle nucleus divides (Mitosis) followed by cell division (cytokinesis)
What is the restriction point? In G1 phase, cell is commited to division and moves on to S phase, or goes to G0 cell cycle arrest
What are the phases if mitosis? Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
What is Prophase? Centromere attachment, spindle formation, and nucleus disappears
What is Metaphase? Chromosome alignment
What is Anaphase? Chromosome pulled apart
What is Telophase? Separate nucleus re-forms around each set of chromosomes
Nucleus double membrane, outer membrane continuous with rough endoplasmic reticulum
Nucleolus inside the nucleus, no membrane, and produces ribosomes
Transcription DNA strand is used as a template by RNA polymerase for synthesis of a mRNA strand
Transcription factors bind DNA and help the transcription of genes Steriod and thyroid hormones, AP-1, NFKB, STAT, NFAT
Steriod hormones role in transcription bind receptors in cytoplasm, then enters nucleus and acts as transcription factor
Thyroid hormone role in transcription bind receptors in nucleus, then acts as transcription factor
Initiation factors bind RNA polymerase and initiate transcription
DNA polymerase chain reaction oligonucleotides used to amplify specific DNA sequences
Purines guainine and adenine guanine forms 1 hydrogen bond with cytosine adenine forms 2 hydrogen bonds with either thymidine or uracil
Pyrimidines cytosine and thymidine(DNA) and uracil(RNA)
Translation mRNA is used as a template by ribosomes for synthesis of protein
Ribosomes have small and large subunits that read mRNA, then bind appropriate tRNAs that have amino acids, and make proteins
Products of glycolysis 1 glucose= 2 ATP and 2 pyruvate molecules
Pyruvate is used in what other cycle? Kreb cycle
Mitochondria have 2 membranes, Kreb cycle on inner matrix, create NADH/FADH2
Products of Kreb cycle 2 pyruvate= NADH and FADH2
NADH and FADH2 are used in what? electron transport chain to create ATP
1 glucose molecule produce how many ATP? 36 ATP
Gluconeogenesis process by whch lactic acid and amino acids are converted to glucose (in liver)
Cori cycle gluconeogenesis (in liver) produces glucose that is transported to glycolysis (in muscle) to produce pyruvate and then lactate, where lactate is then transported to liver to be used for gluconeogenesis
True or False: Acetyl CoA can be converted to pyruvate. False, fats and lipids are not available for gluconeogenesis b/c acetyl CoA can NOT be converted back to pyruvate
Rough endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes proteins that are exported, increased in pancreatic acinar cells
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum lipid/steriod synthesis,detoxifies drugs, increased in liver and adrenal cortex
Golgi apparatus modifies proteins with carbs; proteins are then transported to the cellular membrane, are secreted, or are targeted to lysosomes
Lysosomes digestive enzymes that degrade engulfed particle and worn out organelles
Phagosomes engulfed large particle; then fuse with lysosomes
Endosomes engulfed small particles; fuse with lysosomes
Protein kinase A activated by cAMP, phosphorylates other enzymes
Protein kinase C activated by calcium and diacylglycerol(DAG), phosphorylates
Myosin thick filament, uses ATP to slide along actin to cause muscle contraction
Actin thin filament, interact with myosin
Intermediate filaments keratin (hair/nails), desmin (muscle), vimentin (fibroblasts)
Microtubules form specialized cellular structures such as cilia, neuronal axons, and mitotic spindles, also transport organelles in the cell
Centriole specialized microtubule involved in cell division
Created by: sgrisby