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Comd 2500 Chapter 5

QuestionAnswer
What is the infant's speech perception ability the ability to devote attention to prosodic and phonetic regularities of speech
What do prosodic regularities include? frequency, duration, stress and intonation
What is frequency? pitch of sounds
What is duration? length of sounds
What is stress? prominence placed on certain syllables of multisyllabic words
what is intonation? prominence placed on entire phrases and sentences.
How do infants use prosodic regularities to segment the speech stream? becoming familiar with the dominant stress patterns of their native language.
What stress to infants learning english prefer? strong
phonetic detail of speech include what? phonemes
What did the Stager and Werker study conclude about infants (8 months old) they are trying to learn simple sound distinctions and are more sensitive to changes in phonemes.
Infant's ability to to notice fine phonetic detail is limited to their native language. T or F False
Researchers suspect that discriminating nonnative contrasts may be a a ________ ________ ability
Infants' ability to differentiate between permissible and impermissible sound sequences in their native language is present by about how many months? 9 months
Children's perceptions of speech is what? categorical
what is voice onset time? interval between the release of a stop consonant and the onset of vocal cord vibration
infants can distinguish between purposeful and accidental action by how old? 4 months
the ability to group items and events according to the perceptual and conceptual features they share is called.... categories
What are the 3 levels of categories? superordinate, subordinate and basic
what is the superordinate level? the most general concept in a particular category (food, clothing)
Are superordinate level words first or later in learning? later
what is the subordinate level? describe specific concept in a category (pinto, black, garbanzo for beans)
What is the basic level? general concepts in a category (apple, chair, shirt)
Basic level is the first or later learning? first
What are the 2 basic categories at each level of the hierarchy that infants learn from perceptual and conceptual
what are perceptual categories? learn on the basis of similar features (color, shape, texture)
what are conceptual categories? requires infants to know what something is or what something does
what are the 6 vocalization development stages according to SAEVD? reflexive, control of phonation, expansion, control of articulation, canonical syllable, C
What is SAEVD? Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development
What age is the reflexive stage? 0
What is the infant doing in the reflexive stage? sounds of discomfort and distress, and vegetative sounds.
Do infants have control over their reflexive sounds? no
What age is the control of phonation stage? 6
What is the infant doing in the control of phonation stage? cooing and gooing
What sounds are the cooing and gooing sounds? mainly of vowel sounds and nasalized sounds.
Why are control of phonation sounds easier for infant to produce? because they don't have to manipulate the tongue, lips or teeth
What age is the expansion stage? 4
What is the infant doing in the expansion stage? they gain more control over the articulators and produce series of vowel sounds as well as vowel glides. They experiment with loudness and pitch.
What is symmetrical communication patterns? mutual engagement on the part of mother and infant
What is unilateral communication pattersn? involve engagement on the part of the mother but not the infant
are infants rates of syllabic and vocalic vocalizations positively or negatively associated with symmetrical communication patterns? positively
are infants rates of syllabic and vocalic vocalizations positively or negatively associated with unilateral communication patterns? negatively
What age is the control of articulation? 5
What is the infant doing in the control of articulation stage? experiment with sounds and loudness of voice. Marginal babbling emerges
define marginal babbling. early type of babbling containing short strings of consonant like and vowel like sounds
what age is canonical syllable stage? 6
What is the infant doing in the canonical syllable stage? true babbling emerges
True babbling may be what 2 things? reduplicated and nonreduplicated
what is reduplicated babbling? repeating C
what is nonreduplicated babbling? consists of nonrepeating C
what stage are whispered vocalizations, rounded vowels and high front vowels produced at? canonical syllable stage
what age is the advanced forms stage? 10
What is the infant doing in the advanced forms stage? diphthongs and jargon
what is jargon? special type of babbling that contains the true melodic patterns of the native language.
Jargon are not true words. T or F True
What are some foundations that pave the way for later language development? infant
What else can infant directed speech be called? motherese, baby talk, child
What is infant directed speech? the speech adults use in communicative situations with young language learners
What are is paralinguistic features of speech? the manner of speech outside the linguistic information.
What features does paralinguistic features of ID speech include? high overall pitch, exaggerated pitch contours and slower temos.
What is the syntactic difference between ID and AD? shorter MLU, fewer morphemes, fewer subordinate clauses more content words, fewer function words
What discourse features does ID speech have? more repetition and more questions
what special purposes does ID speech have? attract infant attention, infants prefer it to AD, aids in communicated emotion and speakers communicative intent
ID contains exaggerated vowels or consonants? vowels
ID speech highlights content words or function words? content
What are the 3 developmental phases for joint attention? attendance to social partners, emergence and coordination of joint attention, transition to language
Attendance to social partners is at what age? birth
what are infants doing in attendance to social partners? learning how to maintain attention and be organized within sustained periods of engagement, looking at people's faces
what age is emergence and coordination of joint attention 6 months to 1 year
what are infants doing at emergence of coordination of joint attention? moving their attention between an object of interest and another person
what is supported joint attention? joint attention in which an adult use techniques as speaking with an animated voice or showing an infant novel objects
What is joint attention important? in absence, infants may miss out on word learning opportunities as their caregivers label objects and event for them
what is intersubjective awareness? recognition of when one person shares a mental focus on some external object or action with another person.
What do infants use intersubjective awareness for? infer another person's intentions
intentional communication is what? using your own actions referentially
What is imperative pointing? requests to adults to retrieve objects for them.
What is declarative pointing? call an adult's attention to objects and to comment on objects
is declarative pointing or imperative points related to their understanding of other people's intentions? declarative
What age is the transition to language? 1 year and beyond
What do infants do in the transition to language? begin to incorporate language into their communcative interactions with other people.
How do daily routines of infancy help with language development? during routines, caregivers provide commentary on what is happening which provides info on how to segment phrases, clauses and words.
what 7 indicators of caregiver responsiveness have been linked with improved rates of language learning?` waiting and listening, following the child's lead, joining in and playing, being face to face, using a variety of questions and labels, encouraging turn taking, expanding and extending
Both the quality and quantity of responsiveness by caregivers play a large role in early language development. T or F True
When is a word a true word? clear intention, pronunciation that approximates the adult form, uses it consistently and generalizes beyond original context.
When is the first true word usually produced? 12 months
what are the 3 rule governed domains that reflect an integrated whole content, form and use
how do infants use language? (10 things) attention seeking to self, attention seeking to event, objects or other people, requesting objects, requesting action, requesting info, greeting, transferring, protesting or rejecting, responding or acknowledging, informing.
for intraindividual differences, what are the 3 factors as to why language comprehension precedes language production? people only have to retrieve words from their lexicon, sentences are preorganized with lexical items, a syntactic structure and intonation, communicative interaction with infants is usually highly contextualized.
What are the 3 differences for interindividuals? some will develop language more quickly than others, some will express themselves for different communicative purposes, and some will be late talkers and some will be early talkers.
what are 2 variables of interest for interpreting variation in infants' vocab? SES and amount of talk parents engage in with their children.
What do expressive language learners do? they use language primarily for social exchanges.
what do referential language learners do? use language primarily to refer to people and objects.
What are late talkers? children who exhibit early delays in their expressive language development
What are early talkers? children who are ahead of their peers in expressive language use.
late talkers perform at lower levels in what vs early talkers? sentence formulation, word retrieval, auditory processing of complex info and elaborated verbal expression
According to the book, what 4 ways do researchers gather info for language achievements? habituation
What is habituation in the habituation dishabituation tasks?
what is dishabituation in the habituation dishabituation tasks?
What is the intermodal preferential looking paradigm? infant sits on blindfolded parent and watches split screen presentation in 1 stimulus is on right, and one on left.
What is the intermodal preferential looking paradigm?2 audio is given that only matches 1 side of screen, and hidden camera records infants' visual fixation. When infant understands language, will fixate on correct side of screen.
What is the interactive intermodal preferential looking paradigm? Same setup as the intermodal preferential looking paradigm, but the TV is a movable display board.
What is a salience trial this measures whether the infant has an a priori preference for one of the objects over the other object.
what is naturalistic observation? systematically observing and analyzing an infant's communicative behavior in everyday situations.
according to the book what 2 informal measures of language development do a clinician use? informal language screens, parent
What are informal language screens? involve checklists of common early language milestones
what are parent report measures? parents report directly on their infant's development.
Created by: jbw2815