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Epidermis podiatry

Thickness range? 0.06mm - 0.15mm
Arrangement of cells? Closely packed with little extracellular material between them, continous sheets in simple or stratified layers
Describe epithelial cell surfaces Apical surface - exposed to exterior of body. Lateral surface - face adjacent cells. Basal surface - attached to basement membrane.
What is basement membrane? Thin extracellular layer between epithelium and connective tissue. Consists of basal lamina and reticular lamina. Composed mainly of protein fibers.
Epidermis is..? Stratified squamous epithelium
How long does it take for epidermis to renew? 15-30 days
Does epidermis have blood supply? No, avascular.
Name the two types of Epidermal cells Kerinocytes and non-keratinocytes.
How much of epidermis is made from Keratinocytes? 90%
What produces keratin? Keratinocytes
What is keratin? Tough, fibrous protein.
What does keratin do? Protects skin and underlying tissues from abrasions, heat, microbes and chemicals. ALso helps to waterproof skin preventing water loss.
Main component of hair, skin and nails? Keratin.
Produces lamellar granules? Keratinocytes.
What do lamellar granules do? Produce water-repellant sealant.
Name the 3 non-keratinocyte cells. Melanocytes, Langerhans cells and Merkel cells.
Produce melanin? Melanocytes.
Where are melanocytes found mainly? Stratum Germinativum.
Which cells do not form desmosomes? Melanocytes and Langerhans cells.
Which cells do form desmosomes? Merkel cells and keratinocytes
Which cells participate in immune response? Langerhans cells.
What do Merkel cells do? Contact flattened disc of neuron called tactile (Merkel) disc. They detect touch sensations.
Where are Merkel cells found? Stratum Germinativum.
Which cells are easily damaged by UV light? Langerhans and melanocytes, keratinocytes are afforded some protestion by melanin granules but they do degrade melanin so it is usually absent in superficial layers of skin.
Name the five layers of the epidermis, superficial to deepest. St. Corneum, St.Lucidum, St Granulosm, St Spinosum, St Germinativum.
How many layers of cells has each of the epidemal layers? Corneum - 25-30, Lucidum 3-5, Granulosum - 3-5, Spinosum 8-10, Germinativum - 1
-corne = ? Horn or horny
lucid = ? Clear.
granulos = ? Little grains
spinos = ? Thorn-like
germinate = ? New life
% water in St Corneum? Normally 15%, less than 10% natural functions do not work as well.
Which layer has a key role in preventing water loss? St Corneum
Describe arrangement of cells in St Corneum Dead flattened keratinocytes. Bricks and mortar arrangement. Intracellular spaces filled with 'cement' which holds cells together. Lipids between them help conserve moisture since water cannot pass through them easily.
Which layer is only found in thick skin? St Lucidum
What does St Lucidum do? Protective shield to UV light, remember that palms and soles contain few melanocytes, so prevents sunburn to these areas.
Contains protein eleidin? St Lucidum.
Which layer does apoptosis occur? St Granulosm.
What is apoptosis? Programmed cell death. Organelles and nuclei breakdown.
Which layer does keratinization begin? St Granulosm.
In which layer do cells become flattened and accumulate large granules of keratohyaline and lamellar granules? St Granulosm.
Which layer provides strength and flexibility? St Spinosum.
What gives St Spinosum its 'spiny' appearance? Large amounts of keratin filiment bundles called tonofiliments.
Which layer contains Langerhans cells? St Spinosum.
Describe St Germinativum. Simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium.
What does St Germinativum sit on? Basement membrane next to dermis.
What attaches St Germinativum? Hemidesmosomes.
What happens in St Germinativum? Keratinocytes are formed by stem cells, cells undergo cell division by mitosis and push older layers up.
Where are melanocytes and Merkel cells present? St Germinativum.
What makes up cornified zone? Granulosum, Lucidum and Corneum.
What makes up Malpighian layer? Germinativum and Spinosum.
What is the Malpighian layer? Strata of metabolically active cells
The shedding or peeling of the epidermis in scales is? Desquamation.
Formation of the epidermis is called? Epidermopoiesis.
The process by which cells become horny due to deposition of protein within them? Keratinization.
Fissuring occurs if? Skin is too dry.
Maceration occurs if? Skin is too wet.
Skin colour is determined by? Haemoglobin, red and yellow; Carotenes, orange; Melanin, brown.
Does number of melanocytes affect skin pigment? No skin pigment is determined by number of melanosomes, the organelle which produces melanin. Number of melanocytes in most human skin is the same.
Created by: HbombG41



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