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Neural Bases Exam II

Neuromotor Control of Speech and Movement (Lecture 4-CN only)

QuestionAnswer
Controls tongue movement by innervating all ipsilateral intrinsic (sup. longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, transverse and verticalis) and most extrinsic (genioglossus, styloglossus, and hyoglossus) tongue muscles (palatoglossus is controlled by CN X) Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Provides motor to muscles of the tongue Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Damage results in paralysis of half of the tongue Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Innervates all intrinsic and some extrinsic muscles of the tongue Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Motor only Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Dysfunctions affect the ability to control head movements Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)
Contribute to tilt, forward and backward extension and lateral rotation of head Spinal portion of Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)
Provides motor to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles Spinal portion of Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)
Arises from the first 5 or 6 segments of the spinal cord Spinal portion of Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)
Arises from nucleus ambiguous and mingles with vagus nerve Cranial portion of Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)
Injury causes restricted neck movement and weakness of the shoulder Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)
Contribute to innervations of neck and shoulder muscles Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)
Innervates muscles for controlling head movement Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)
Motor only Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)
Disorders lead to paralysis of the vocal folds affecting voice quality but may also lead to choking and aspiration Recurrent laryngeal nerve of Vagus (CV X)
Injury causes paralysis of the pharynx and the soft palate, leading to swallowing difficulty Pharyngeal branch of Vagus Nerve (CV X)
A unilateral lesion of the nerve fibers and/or nucleus ambiguous is likely to Result in ipsilateral paresis or paralysis of the soft palate, pharynx and larynx
Motor and sensory to all intrinsic musculature of the larynx and epiglottis Recurrent laryngeal nerve of Vagus (CN X)
Most crucial branch for speech and swallowing Recurrent laryngeal nerve of Vagus (CN X)
Provides motor to cricothyroid muscle External branch of Superior laryngeal of Vagus nerve (CN X)
Transmits info from muscle spindles from laryngeal musculature Internal Branch of Superior laryngeal of Vagus nerve (CN X)
Sensation from mucous membrane lining down to the level of the vocal folds, epiglottis base of the tongue, aryepiglottic folds Internal Branch of Superior laryngeal of Vagus nerve (CN X)
Joins with CN IX and the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve to for the pharyngeal plexus Pharyngeal branch of Vagus nerve (CN X)
Provides motor to superior, middle and inferior constrictor muscles of the pharynx, palatoglossus and levator palate of the soft palate (levator veli palatine is CN V) Pharyngeal branch of Vagus nerve (CN X)
Provides motor to the muscles of the pharynx and soft palate Pharyngeal branch of Vagus nerve (CN X)
Many branches; 3 branches important for speech arise from the posterior 2/3 of nucleus ambiguous Vagus nerve (CN X)
Mixed nerve that is crucially important for speech and swallowing Vagus nerve (CN X)
Damage results in decreased sensation from and activation of visceral organs and paralysis of the larynx and pharynx Vagus nerve (CN X)
Motor component activates the muscles of the pharynx, larynx, and soft palate Vagus nerve (CN X)
Provides motor to Dilate the pharynx to permit the passage of a large food bolus- facilitate swallowing Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Poor control of the parotid gland leads to excessive oral secretion; particularly after bilateral damage Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Loss of the gag reflex results from damage to Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Loss of general and taste sensation from the ipsilateral posterior 1/3 of the tongue results from Damage to Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
A discrete lesion results in partial paresis of the unilateral stylopharyngeal muscle, impairing ipsilateral pharyngeal elevation in deglutition Damage to Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Provides motor to Elevate the pharynx Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Provides motor to Elevate the larynx Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Provides motor to Innervate the stylopharyngeus Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Provides motor to Nucleus ambiguous Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Provides sensory to regulatessensation from oral mucosa, soft palate, palatal arches, posterior 1/3 tongue, Eustachian tube and middle ear cavity Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Provides sensory to mediate gag reflex Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Provides sensory to Nucleus solitarius; Special sensory: taste to posterior 1/3 of tongue Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Lesions may also result in loss of gag reflex Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Lesions lead to the loss of taste sensation from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue and mild dysphasia (swallowing disorder) are the result of Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Sensory function is to process the sensation of touch and taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue and of the oral pharynx Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Motor function contributes to swallowing Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Paralysis of all the upper and lower muscles in the face; disastrous effects on articulation of labial and labiodentals Results from complete destruction of the facial nucleus or a bilateral cortical lesion
Damage to Facial nerve (CV VII): An injury near the pons and surrounding area is likely to affect all three functions of the facial nerve resulting in paralysis of the ipsilateral facial muscles, excessive secretion from the glands, and loss of taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
Provides motor to Muscles of facial expression Facial nerve (CV VII)
salivatory and lacrimal glands innervated by Facial nerve (CV VII)
Chorda tympani is a sensory branch of the facial nerve that transmits taste from chemoreceptors on anterior 2/3 of tongue
facial paralysis and loss of taste sensation is a result of A facial nerve lesion
the sense of taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue are served by Facial nerve (CN VII)
all muscles of facial expression are controlled by Facial nerve (CN VII)
Facial nerve (CN VII) is primarily a motor nerve, but also has some sensory functions
devastating effects on swallowing and speech results from Bilateral Damage to Trigeminal (CN V)
Paralysis of all the upper and lower muscles in the face; disastrous effects on articulation of labial and labiodentals Results from complete destruction of the facial nucleus or a bilateral cortical lesionlysis of all the upper and lower muscles in the face; disastrous effects on articulation of labial and labiodentals
Damage to Facial nerve (CV VII): An injury near the pons and surrounding area is likely to affect all three functions of the facial nerve resulting in paralysis of the ipsilateral facial muscles, excessive secretion from the glands, and loss of taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
ipsilateral paralysis or paresis, jaw deviation toward side of injury results from Unilateral Damage to Trigeminal (CN V)
excruciating pain in the face; usually affecting the opthalamic and mandibular branches Trigeminal Neuralgia
ipsilateral loss of sensation in the areas of distribution and loss of sneezing and blinking reflexes result of damage to any branch of Trigeminal Nerve (CN V)
Provides motor to Tensor tympani Trigeminal (CN V)
Provides motor to Tensor veli palatini (velum closure) Trigeminal (CN V)
Provides motor to Anterior belly of the digastric Trigeminal (CN V)
Provides motor to Mylohyoid Trigeminal (CN V)
Provides motor to Masseter- elevates, closes, and slightly protrudes mandible Trigeminal (CN V)
Provides motor to Temporalis- elevates and retracts mandible Trigeminal (CN V)
Provides motor to Lateral/external pterygoid- depresses and protrudes mandible toward opposite side; regulates side to side movement Trigeminal (CN V)
Provides motor to Medial/internal pterygoid- elevates and assist in mandible protrusion Trigeminal (CN V)
Sensory function Mandibular branch (largest branch) of Trigeminal nerve (CN V) mediates sensastions from skin on sides of scalp, mucosal membrane of the lower gum, the mouth, and meninges of anterior and middle cranial fossae; anterior 1/2 of pinna, external auditory meatus, external surface of tympanic membrane, and the mucosa of anterior 2/3 of tongue
Three branches of Trigeminal nerve (CN V) are opthalamic, maxillary, and mandibular
General Somatic Function of Trigeminal nerve (CN V) pain and sensation from the face, anterior scalp, anterior 2/3 tongue, mucosal membranes of nose and mouth, teeth, and portions of dura mater
facial sensory loss and paralysis of the jaw is associated with Loss of trigeminal function
Overall FUNCTION of Trigeminal nerve (CN V) pain and touch sensation of the face and anterior 2/3rds of tongue; motor to muscles of mastication
Trigeminal nerve (CN V) is a functionally mixed nerve with both sensory and motor function
Created by: jrschwa1