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A&P Ch. 22

Respiratory System

What are the "ingrediants" for ATP? Glucose + O2
Gas diffusion between lungs & blood? External respiration
Gas diffusion between blood & tissues? Internal respiration
Entry & absorbtion of Oxygen is required for ____________ respiration Aerobic
Waste product of aerobic respiration Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Components of upper repiratory tract: Nose/nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx
Components of lower respiratory tract: Trachea, Lungs, respiratory tree, alveoli
These cells produce Mucous Goblet cells
________________ Movement clears mucous to pharynx. Ciliary movement
This chemical stops ciliary movement Nicotine
Warms, filters, and moistens air Nasal cavity
Channels air into respiratory pathway Pharynx
What 3 parts make up the larynx? Glottis (opening), epiglottis(flap that covers glottis), and vocal cords
Name the parts that dictate airflow in order from beginning to end: Nose/nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary bronchi, lungs, Bronchioles, alveoli
What is the purpose of smooth muscle in the respiratory tract? Controls bronchoconstriction and dilation
Relatively hollow, and contains millions of alveoli Lungs
This holds the lung tissue against the cavity wall. Pleural membrane
Penetration of the pleural cavity through injury that causes the lung to collapse Pneumothorax
T/F: Atmospheric pressure equals internal lung pressure at rest True
Skeletal muscle contraction, lung volume increases, lung pressure falls below atmospheric pressure, air enters respiratory tract. Inspiration
Muscle relaxation, lung tissue recoils to decrease lung volume, lung pressure increases above atmospheric pressure. Expiration
Air moves from ________ to ________ pressure High to low
Amount of air that enters and leaves in one cycle. Tidal volume
What is Inspiratory reserve volume? Extra air during forced inspiration
What is expiratory reserve volume? Amount of air that is exhaled during forced expiration
Air remaining after forced expiration Residual volume
Forcing air against a closed glottis Cough
Similar physiology to cough Sneeze
Diaphragm spasm with closed glottis Hiccup
Appears to be a social signal Yawn
Central chemoreceptors are located here Medulla oblongata
Increased ________ yields increased ________ CO2, H+
Located in carotid and aortic bodies Peripheral chemoreceptors
Controls the rate of respiration based on input from chemoreceptors Medulla
controls respiratory rhythm Pons
Determined by length and tension of vocal cords Pitch
Depends upon force of air over vocal cords Loudness
Sound is shaped into language by the action of the ________, ________, ________, and ________ Pharynx, tongue, soft palate, and lips
What 2 layers make up the alveolar structure? Alveolus lining & capillary epithelium
Each hemoglobin contains how many globin molecules? 4
Each globin molecule contains a _______ group with what kind of core? Heme group; Iron core
Each heme group can reversibly bind how many O2 molecules? One
Hemoglobin that is full of oxygen Oxyhemoglobin
Hemoglobin that is not fully loaded Deoxyhemoglobin
Hemoglobin with attached CO2 Carbaminohemoglobin
What is carbon monoxide poisoning? When CO attaches to O2 binding sites, CO binds 200x more tightly than oxygen and is not easily released. This results in a lack of O2.
Name 3 URT infections Rhinitis (Cold), Sinusitis (Sinus infection), Pharyngitis (Soar throat)
Name 3 LRT infections Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Influenza
Chronic bacterial infection often associated with tobacco use that causes tissue necrosis Emphysema
Typically leads to narrowing of airways and loss of lung elasticity Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Created by: Joshdole04



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