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Kinesology Test 2

QuestionAnswer
Name 3 Kinds of Environmental Factors natural, Sensory, and Force
What are natural Factors? Land and water
What are sensory factors allergens, temperature and humidity
What does force do Produces, stops, and modifies motion
What are three types of Force Compression, Tension and Equilibrium
What is compression Pushing Force
What is Tension Pulling Force
What is equilibrium balancing force
What are the two main types of Force Internal, External
What is internal force Produced by what is inside us (muscle)
What is external force It comes from the outside our body, two types- primary and secondary
Name the three types of primary external force Fluid, Contact, and Gravity
What does fluid force consider and what effect does it have Air and liquid; provides resistance
In fluid force what effect does increasing velocity have? increases the effect of lift and drag
What are the three conditions of fluid force Buoyancy, drag and lift
What is buoyancy Upward lift; it is equal to the weight of displaced air or water
Where does buoyancy have a greater effect, air or water? water
How can buoyancy be used in therapy It can be used to unload weight from the joints and better support the body weight for someone that is weak
What is drag Resistance to forward motion
What must you have for drag? velocity
What has more drag larger or smaller surface areas larger
How can you reduce drag Streamlining
What has more drag water or air water
What causes lift differences in velocity around an object (airplane wings) Flow is faster on one side then other
What is necessary for lift to happen? velocity
If flow is normally horizontal around an object, what direction does lift normally happen vertical
what is contact force the Force that happens when two objects come into contact with one another
What are the two divisions of Contact force normal and friction
What happens in normal contact force Forces that are pair and opposite and exert the same force
What Newton's Law does Normal Contact Force fall under newton's 3rd law
What are two other terms that can be used for normal contact force interaction force and action-reaction force
What is friction Force acting in opposite direction to desired movement- happens at point of contact
Define Shear force shear force happens in parallel direction of the object's surface someone slides off the chair and the chair and skin have friction- this can tear the skin
How can decreased friction to help your client Using an arm skate board or talcum powder so you can decrease friction as they run their arm across the table
How can increase friction be used to help a patient Tennis ball
What is gravity the force that pulls us down towards the center of earth
Where does the action line go towards the center of the earth
How is gravity measured? the weight of the body through the center of gravity
What is mass? the quantity of matter contained in an object (not the same as weight)
How can you decrease the effects of gravity constant force can make a gravity reduced plane
What is vector? it has magnitude and direction
What are two types of directions in vector? Linear and Rotary Axis
What is a rotary axis Joints- in the same positions over and over
What are two types of linear movement straight and curvilinear
What is the point of application where the direction is applied
If the center of gravity is your point of application, what type of movement happens? Linear
What is a special case of Vector Force Force Couple
What is a force couple - 2 or more forces with similar magnitude - must move opposite or sig. different direction of force - Rotary movement applied to same object at same time
what does a force coupling do? increase in force or strength
What is an example of force coupling? Scapula
What are the three types of secondary forces Joint Compression, Joint traction, pressure
What is joint compression Pushing towards joint
What is joint traction pulling towards the center
What is pressure two forces pushing together can cause decubiti
What is Newton's First Law Law of Inertia An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
What is Newton's Second Law law of acceleration an object with less mass will go faster and farther with the same force then an object with larger
What is Newton's Third Law law of Action and reaction for every action there is an equal and opposite reactions
What are three factors of movement? Simple Machines, insufficiency, kinematic chains
Name 6 types of simple machines incline plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, lever
What is an example of an incline and what does incline accomplish Wheel Chair Ramp makes it easier to move something heavy
What is an example of a pulley and what does a pulley accomplish? ?? change of direction of force
What are three components of levers? force, resistance, and axis
What are three types of Lever 1st class, 2nd class, and 3rd class
What does a first class lever accomplish? balance
What does a second class lever accomplish designed to enhance strength
What does a third class lever accomplish designed to increase ROM and speed
If you lengthen the force arm, do you make the job easier or harder easier
If you lengthen the resistance arme, do you make the job easier or harder harder
What is insufficiency? The inability to obtain a full range of motion because the muscle crosses two or more joints
What are two kinds of insufficiency? Active and Passive
What is active insufficiency Requires active contraction from client Feels like a cramp
Give an example what joint movement causes active insufficiency hip flexion and knee extension
What is passive insufficiency its a burning sensation from a passive stretch where you feel the effects of gravity
What is tendenosis a special case of passive that allows for the grasping with a weak muscle in the hand
What is the kinematic chain sequential movements of bones and joints that follow a specific pattern
There are two types of kinematic chain, what are they open and closed chain
What is closed chain Where the distal segment is stabilized or fixed All joints will move in the chain
What is open chain Where the distal segment is freely moving one joint can move without impacting other joins
What is packed position Amount of surface area contact between the bones in a joint
There are two kinds of packed position closed and open
What is closed packed position the largest amount of possible surface meets provides stability
What is open packed position less contact between the two bones in a joint less stable
Where do injuries occur most often, open packed position or closed packed position open packed position
What are two types of Performance skills Motor and praxis
Define praxis and give an example ability to plan and carry out movement Bending, maintaining posture, etc
What are three types of Motor behaviors? Development, learning, and Control
What is Motor Development? identifying changes in movement behavior that occurs as client progresses through life span -Covers months, years, or decades
What does normal motor development required usually? normal nervous system (abnormal will cause delayed or lack of development)
Name 5 ways that motor skills can be developed Reflexive/Voluntary Cephalo/Caudil Proximal/Distal Gross motor/Fine Motor Sequential Development
Define Reflexive/Voluntary development You will develop (or be born with) reflexes first and then from those go on to develop voluntary movement
Define Cephalo/Caudil Development You will develop and gain skills from head to tail. Your eyes will develop skills before your mouth, etc
Define proximal/distal development Development will start proximately (close to the body)and the move distally as development occurs You gain fine motor skills first at shoulder, then at elbow, then wrist, etc
Define Gross Motor/Fine Motor development Gross motor skills will be developed before fine motor skills A baby will be able to swing their arm and touch an object before they can reach and grasp it
What is Motor Learning? acquisition and modification of learned movement patterns over time example: learning to ride a bike
Motor learning considers the task, the person, and the environment, how is this different then motor development with motor development all the milestones are the same for everyone (even if people don't reach them). Motor learning will be different for every person and that is the way it is supposed to be (tie-shoe example)
What is the time frame of Motor Learning? hours, days, weeks
Define Motor control Outcome of motor learning involving ability to produce purposeful movements of extremities and postural adjustments in presence to activity and environmental demands
What is the time frame of motor control? over very short time intervals
What skills might functional movement involve? ROM, Vision, Timing, how far reach
Name the 4 categories of Adaptive Motor Behaviors abnormal atypical normal atypical normal typical normal enhanced typical movement
Define Abnormal Atypical movement -a lack of movement options - inability to produce desired movement strategy to complete activity
Give an example of Abnormal Atypical Movement Flaccid Paralysis
Define Normal Atypical Movement normal strategies temporarily or permanently impaired
Give an example of Normal Atypical Movement Parkinsons patient and walking- they can do it, but it is not typical movement
What is the name for the gait of a person with parkinson's? Festinating Gate
What are characteristics of a Normal Typical movement pattern? -many options -move in any plane - Coordinated
What is normal enhanced typical? usually athletes exceptional and doesn't normally occur naturally
Define Posture State of body in relationship to gravity, the ground, and its body parts
What is Posture Control regulation of body's position in space for dual purpose of stability and orientation -ability to maintain posture when other things are influences it
Which is more static: Posture or Posture Control Posture
What is anticipating Posture Control -more complicated -usually automatic (can be voluntary) -more dynamic and demanding
What is stability Staying in equilibrium
What is the center of gravity? The point where mass is distributed equally for the object
What is the Line of Gravity line that goes straight down from the CoG (center of gravity) to the earth
What is the Base of Support area of what supports the object
What is needed for stability to happen? Center o' Gravity and Line o' Gravity needs to be over the Base o' Support
True or False: someone with a higher CoG will have more stability False
What must remain over the Base of Support for stability? CoG
Does increasing BoS increase or decrease stability increase
Increasing mass increasing or decreases stability increase
Do you want to increase or decrease friction for more stability? increase
What can you do visually to increase stability? Focusing on a single spot
Created by: Niccole2