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QB Sciences

Science. NOT for memorizing purposes. Flashcards may have several sentences.

Turing Test A test to determine computer intelligence. A judge talks naturally to both a computer and a human (only typing). If the judge cannot easily tell the human apart from the computer, the computer passes the test. No computer has passed this test yet.
Golgi Complex Organelle in eukaryotic cells. The main function is to process and package proteins or lipids before they are taken to their destination.
Ribosomes Components of cells that make proteins from amino acids. mRNA is read here (read 5' to 3'). Translation happens here.
Mitochondria Organelle in eukaryotic cells. There are 2 membranes, outer and inner, with space between the membranes (matrix). Mitochondria is main component of ATP production. In the inside, the cristae is folded for more surface area so more ATP can be created.
Malaria Parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito. Parasites enter bloodstream, infect the liver, and then re-enter the bloodstream, killing cells.
Meningitis (Meningococcal) Disease caused by bacteria that usually live harmlessly in the throat. The bacteria release poison. Blood vessels rupture, and blood becomes thicker, making it more difficult for the heart to pump. More poison is released once the bacteria is killed.
Spleen Organ that removes red blood cells and makes antibodies. Important to the lymphatic system.
Small Intestine Organ where most absorption and digestion takes place. Follows the stomach, and is followed by the large intestine.
Black Body Theoretical object that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation that falls on it in physics.
Black Hole A region of space where nothing can escape. Around the hole is the even horizton, which marks the point of no return. Even light cannot escape black holes.
Supernova Stellar explosion larger than nova. Burst of radiation involved.
Fungi Eukaryotic organisms completely separate from animals, plants, and bacteria. Includes yeast and mushrooms. Plays major roles in decomposition.
Halley's Comet The best known short-period comet; visible every 76 years or so. Only comet visible to the naked eye and may appear twice in a human lifetime.
Friction The force resisting motion of two surfaces sliding against each other. Is not a fundamental force; occurs because of electromagnetic forces between particles when surfaces contact.
Amphipathic Pertains to a molecule containing both polar and nonpolar portions in its structure.
Amphoteric Pertains to a molecule with both a positive and negative charge.
Cation Positive charge ion.
Anion Negative charge ion.
Zwitterion Positive and negative charge ion.
Electronegativity How much an atom attracts electrons (Oxygen has high electronegativity, making, in water, the O molecule partially negative and the H molecules partially positive.)
Enzymes Do NOT cause reactions. Proteins that increase the rate of chemical reactions; speed up reactions by lowering energy cost for activations. They push the substrates together to make the reaction easier. Humans have many active enzymes.
Antiseptic Antimicrobial substances that prevent infection, sepsis, and decay. Applied to LIVING tissue and skin. ex: Hydrogen Peroxide
Disinfectant Substances that destroy microbes; applied to NON-LIVING objects. Not all microorganisms are killed by disinfectants.
Sterilization Extreme process that kills all types of life.
Created by: Felicis