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ClinChem T2 Vocab

Clinical Chemistry Test 2 Vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
Acidosis increase in the acidity of blood due to an accumulation of acids or an excessive loss bicarbonate
Alkalosis increase in blood alkalinity due to an accumulation of alkaline substances or reduction of acids
Angina chest pain due to inadequate supply of oxygen to heart muscle
Anion Gap the unmeasured anions in plasma present with bicarbonate and chloride to balance sodium and potassium cations
Antistreptolysin O titer (ASO) measurement of antibodies to a protein component of group A Streptococcus bacteria
Atherosclerosis fatty accumulation causing hardening and plugging in blood vessels
Ascites accumulation of serous fluid in the abdomen
Azotemia an elevated level of urea in the blood
Buffer a mixture of chemicals that resist changes in pH by combining with free H+ (proton acceptor) and OH-, generally a strong salt and weak acid of base; human buffer systems include anionic proteins, deoxyhemoglobin, phosphate buffers, ans bicarbonate/carboni
Clearance the eliminationof a substance, as related to its removal from the blood plasma by the kidneys
Delta Check comparison of concentration of an analyte to values from previous specimens in the same patient; a form of quality assurance
Diabetic Neuropathy disease of the kidneys, including inflammatory, degenerative, and sclerotic conditions, caused by disease
Electrophoresis a separation technique of different charged molecules on solution in an electrical field of varying potential
Filtration the process of removing particles form a solution by passing the solution through a membrane or other barrier
Galactosemia an inherited disorder marked by the inability to metabolize galactose due to a congenital absence of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase
Gluconeogenesis formation of glucose from excess amino acids, fats, or other noncarbohydrate sources
Glycemic pertaining to control of blood glucose levels
Glycogenesis formation of glycogen
Glycogenolysis glycogen stored in the liver and muscles is converted to glucose 1-phosphate and then to glucose 6-phosphate
Hydrophobic water insoluble
Hypovolemia decreased blood volume; may be caused by fluid loss or inadequate fluid intake
Idiopathic without a recognizable cause (following the path of idiots)
Kenicterus yellow staining of the lipid-rich meninges of the brain and spinal cord due to bilirubin infiltrates
Ketoacidosis the accumulation of keto acids in the blood causing metabolic acidosis
Micelle ultramicroscopic particle
Microalbuminuria small amounts of albumin found in the urine, also called dipstick-negative increase in the excretion of albumin urine
Necrosis death of tissue
Nephritis inflammation of the kidney
Oliguria decreased urine output, < 400mL of urine per day (a common sin of renal insufficiency)
Osmotic Pressure pressure that develops when two solution of different concentration are separated by a semipermeable membrane
Phototherapy exposure to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for therapeutic purposes, such as treating neonatal hyperbilirubinemia
Plague accumulated deposits of fat and other substances in the blood vessels causing roughened and narrowed interior surface
Point of Care Testing (POCT) testing that does not require specimen preparation and provides rapid results at or near the patient’s location
Polydipsia excessive thirst
Polysacharides complex carbohydrates composed of more than 20 monosaccharides
Polyuria exhibiting excessive urine output (>2.5 L/24hr)
Pre-eclampsia a condition of pregnancy characterized by increasing hypertension, proteinuria, and edema
Renal Threshold plasma level at which the kidneys no longer reabsorb a substance so that it is excreted into urine as waste
STAT immediately or at once
Uremia a toxic condition associated with renal insufficiency produced by the retention in the blood of nitrogenous substances normally excreted by the kidney
Created by: 1414395397