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MACC Kidney & Diseas

MACC Kidney physiology and Diseases

QuestionAnswer
What is the path of blood in the kidneys? Renal Artery, Afferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries, vasa recta, efferent arteriole, renal vein
The peritubular capillaries surround what part of the nephrons? Proximal and distal convoluted tubules
The Glomerulus is located within what structure? Bowman's capsule
What part of the nephron serves as a nonselective filter of plasma substances? Gomerulus
What hormone system controls the flow of blood to and within the glomerulus Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone
What are some of the compounds that are reabsorbed by the tubules? Water, sodium chloride, bicarbonate, potassium, calcium, amino acids, phosphate, protein, glucose
At what level of glucose in the blood is needed to exceed the threshold of a normal kidney? Serum glucose of 160 - 180 mg/dl
What part of the tubules is impermeable to water? Ascending loop of Henle
What is the creatinine clearance used for? It is used to determine the extent of nephron damage in known cases of renal disease, to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to determine the feasibility of administering medications
What is Polyuria? Abnormal increase in the volume of urine (>2500ml/24 hrs)
What is Oliguria? Decrease in urinary volume (< 500 ml/24 hrs)
What is anuria? The complete suppression of urine formation (<100 ml/24 hrs)
What is cystitis? Inflammation of the bladder
What is nephritis? Inflammation of the kidney
What is pyelonephritis? Inflammation of the kidney due to a bacterial infection
What does "Microalbumin" test for? It is a quantitative test for small amount of albumin present in urine
What is the GFR or glomerular filtration rate? It is the rate of plasma volume cleared by the glomeruli per unit of time (ml/min).
What are some factors used to calculate the estimated GRF? Creatinine, age, sex and race
What two tests should be used to monitor for renal disease? Microalbumin and eGRF
What are the functions of the kidneys? filtration of blood, regulation of acid, water and electrolyte valance, regulation of hormone levels in the blood and removal of waste products and unwanted substances from plasma
What is acute kidney failure? Sudden loss of the kidneys to remove waste and concentrate urine without losing electrolytes
What are some causes of acute kidney failure Autoimmune, decreased blood flow, infections, pregnancy complications, urinary tract obstructions
What is glomerulonephritis? A sterile, inflammatory process that affects the glomerulus. Blood, protein and casts are found in the urine.
What are the symptoms of glomerular disease? Proteinuria, hematuria, reduction of GFR, hypoproteinemia
When is acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis seen in a patient? This disease is seen following a respiratory infection caused by certain stains of group A streptococcus that contain M proteins in the cell wall of the bacteria
What glomerular disorder is initiated by deposition of immune complexes in the glomerulus, is rapid and progressive? This disease is rapidly progressive (crescentic) gomerulonephritis.
What renal disease is caused by the appearance of cytotoxic autoantibodies against the glomerular and alveolar basement membrane after a viral respiratory infection? This disease is Goodpasture Syndrome
In what renal disease is there an increase serum level of IgA and immune complexes deposited on the glomerular membrane? Berger disease or Immunoglobulin A nephropathy
What are the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome? Blood and protein in the urine, also fat globulars, oval fat bodies and fatty casts. RTE can also be present
What is acute tubular disorder? This disease is caused by damage to the tubule cells of the kidney, resulting in acute kidney failure
What is Fancoini Syndrome? This disease is a tubular disorder in which certain substance normally reabsorbed into the bloodstream by the nephrons are released into the urine instead
What is diabetes insipidus? This disease is caused by the lack of ADH or antidiuretic hormone
What is the most common cause of ESRD or End Stage Renal Failure Disease? Diabetes Mellitis
What is Melanin? A pigment which occurs normally in the skin
Why would melanin be present in the urine? From a metastatic malignant melanoma excreting excess melanin
What color would urine contain melanin be? Urine would be dark brown to black several hours after being voided
What are porphyrins? They are complex iron-free cyclic substances which are intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway of heme.
What are the Watson-Schwartz and Hoesch tests for? Porphyrins
What causes dysmorphic red blood cells? Red blood cells slipping thru the glomerulus - glomerulus bleeding
What does Aldosterone control? increases the absorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium
What does ADH control? water absorption thru the collecting tubule epithelium
What is Chronic Renal Failure? Progressive loss of renal function caused by an irreversible and intrinsic renal disease.
What are renal stones? aggregates of solid chemical interlaid with a matrix of protein and lipids
What is Phenylketonuria? when phenylpyruvic acid is excreted in the urine due to enzyme deficiency in the pathway to form the amino acid tyrosine
What is Tyrosinuria? When tryrosine cannot be metabolized onto important chemicals needed by the body
What causes Diabetes Mellitus? Buildup of glucose in the blood and urine due to lack of or impaired insulin causing polyuria
What is Diabetes Insipidus? Lack of ADH causing polyuria
What pathway is blocked in galactosemia? metabolism of galactose to glucose
Created by: mstanley