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What are Carbohydrates major role? Energy storage/regeneration structural material and molecular recognition/communications
What makes up Carbs Cx(H2O)y
What are properties of Carbs? -size base of carbon chain - location of CO group - number of sugar units - stereochemistry of compound
How can we describe carbs? 3= trios 4= tetrose 5= pentose 6= hexose (most commonn)
Define Aldose Aldehyde functional group
Define Ketose Ketone functional group
2 representations of structure 1. Fisher projection 2. Haworth projection
Define Steroisomers Central carbons and how the align
2 possible arrangements of steroisomers 1. L = Left (HO) 2. D = Right (OH) (most common)
Define Monosaccharide simple sugar = can't be further hydrolized
Define Disaccharide Compound of 2 monosaccharides
Define Oligosaccharide Two to Ten
Define Polysaccharide Large numbers of monosaccharides
Two main chemical properties of carbs 1. Reducing substances 2. Formation of glycosidaicbonds
When making bonds when bonded it is no longer a reducing substance
Define absorption 1. Intestinal mucosa 2. Liver
Define Galactose Final phase of glucose
Define Glycogen Storage form of glucose (forms skeletal muscles)
Define Glycolysis the process by which glycogen or glucose is converted to G6P for entry into the glycolytic pathway to generate energy
Define Glycogenesis the process by which glucose is stated as glycogen if all glucose requirements are met. This is accomplished in the liver and muscles.
Define Glyconeogenesis The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate source(fats and proteins)
Define Lipogenesis Conversion of fats to glucose for energy
Define Lipolysis Conversion of carbohydrates to fatty acids
2 Pathways of Glycolysis 1. Emben-Myerhof Pathway 2. Hexose Monophosphate Shunt
2 Primary regulators 1. Insulin 2. Glucagon
What is the normal fasting glucose 70-105 mg/dL
Define Insulin Responsible for entry of glucose into the cell by making the cell wall more permeable to glucose. Secreted by Beta Cells and reduces plasma glucose
Define Glucagon Increases glucose levels in blood. Secreted by Alpha cells and stimulates glycogenesis and glyconeogenesis
Name Secondary Hormones of Carb Metabolism - Epinephrine - Glucocorticoids - ACTH and Growth Hormone - Thyroxine - Somatosatin
Define Epinephrine Produced by Adrenal Medulla. Inhibits insulin secretion. Increases plasma glucose. Increases glycogenlysis. Promotes lipolysis.
Define Glucocoricoids - Corisol - Released by adrenal cortex - increases plasma glucose - decreases intestinal entry into cell - increases glyconeogenesis,liver glycogen and lypolysis
Define ACTH and Growth Hormone - Released from anterior pituitary - increases plasma glucose
Define Thyroxine - Produced in Thyroid Gland - Increases plasma glucose levels - Increases glycogenolysis and absorption of glucose.
Define Somatostatin -produced in delta cells - increases plasma glucose levels by inhibition of insulin
Define Hyperglycemia -Increases Plasma glucose levels
Define Diabetes Mellitus A group of chronic, heterogenous group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia.
Types of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 - Insulin Dependent Type 2 - Non-Insulin Dependent Gestational - During pregnancy
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus -Destruction of B-cells -Children and adolescents -Abrupt onset -Polyuria, Polydipsia, Polyphagia
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus -Insulin Resistance -Obese people -Generally Milder
Gestational Diabetes -During Pregnancy -Screening for High risk mothers -*see Big Babies
Pathophysiology of Diabetes -Hyperglycemia -Glucosuria -Ketoacidosis (Type 1) -Hyperinsulinemia (Type 2) -Nonketotic hyperosmolar state(Type 2)
Diagnosis of Diabetes Testing is performed based on high risk criteria
Define Hypoglycemia -Decreased plasma glucose levels -very sensitive -glucose levels of 50-55 mg/dL or lower manifest symptoms
Created by: nccrevier