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MACC Cell & Crystals

MACC Non picture cell and crystal information

QuestionAnswer
What volume of urine should be concentrated to study the cells Always the same amount for a lab. Usually 10 or 12 ml.
What concentration of urine is used for the microscopic examination of urine Usually a 1:10 or 1:12 concentration
What stain is usually used to examine the cellular elements of the urine Stemheimer-Malbin supravital stain
What is a smooth biconcave disk that is approx 7 microns in diameter and 2 microng thick. It contains no nuclei Red Blood Cell
What chemical can be added to a urine to destroy red cells, but will leave other elements intact Dilute Acetic Acid
Is it abnormal to see 1-2 red blood cells per high powered field NO
What is Hematuria? Presence of an abnormal amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the urine
Normal urine can contain up to how many WBC's cells? 8 per HPF
What WBC is usually seen in urine? Neurophils
What is pyuria? An increased number of WBCs in the urine
What type of urine will destroy (lyse) cells the fastest? dilute or hypotonic and alkaline
What do WBCs in a urine indicate? Infection
What does WBC casts indicate? Kidney infection
What is cystitis? Bladder infection
What is an Epithelial Cell? Lining cells from any site in the genitourinary tract
What epithelial cells are slightly larger than a leukocyte and contain a large round nucleus. This nucleus is usually off center. Renal Tubular Cells
What epithelial cells are two to four times as large as a white cell. The nucleus is usually centered and can even contain two nucleus. The membrane of these cells allows water to enter, so they can look swollen in hypotonic urine Transitional Epithelial Cells
What epithelial cells are large, flat and irregularly shaped. They are often present due to contamination of vaginal fluid Squamous Epithelial Cells
What normal crystals are present in an acidic urine? Uric acid, amorphous urates, and calcium oxalates
What normal crystals are present in an alkaline urine? Calcium oxalates, calcium phosphates, triple phosphates, ammonium biurates andcalcium carbonates
What abnormal crystals are present in an acidic urine? Cystine, Cholesterol, Leucine, Tyrosine, Bilirubin, Sulfonamides, Radiographic dyes and Ampicillin
What is uric acid's most characteristic forms? diamond or rhombic prism (football) or a rosette
What crystal is a colorless octahedran or "envelope"? Calcium oxalate
What crystal will form a pink precipitate that will dissolve when warmed? Amorphous urates
What crystal forms colorless, refractile, hexagonal plates? Cystine
What crystal is an oily, high retractile, yellow or brown spheroids with a radial and concentric striation? Luecine
What Crystals are very fine, highly retractile needles occurring in sheaves or clusters? Tyrosine
What crystals are large, flat and transparent plates with notched corners? Cholesterol
Where are casts formed? In the lumen of the tubules of the kidneys
What makes up the matrix of a cast? Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein or uromodulin
What substance can usually be found in an urine when casts are present? Protein
What element in urine has parallel sided and rounded or blunted ends? They can vary in length. Casts
What normal casts are mostly gelled Tamm-Horsfall protein (uromodulin) but may contain a few inclusion? Hyaline casts
What casts indicate renal hematuria? Red blood cell casts
What casts are present in renal infection and in noninfectious inflammations? White blood cell casts
What cast is thought to be from the degeneration of cellular casts? Granular casts
What do granular casts indicate? Renal disease or can be present after strenuous exercise
What casts are usually short with blunt or broken ends and have cracked or serrated edges? They have a high refractive index and a smooth homogeneous appearance. Waxy Casts
What casts have incorporated either free fat droplets or oval fat bodies in them? Fatty Casts
What is an oval fat body? A renal tubular cell or macrophage filled with lipids
What does an oval fat body or a cholesterol crystal exhibit under polarized light? Maltese cross
What stain is used to identify fats in urine? Sudan III or Oil Red O
What protozoan flagellates can be seen in urine as a contaminate and is a sexually transmitted disease? Trichomonas Vaginalis
What is a ovoid colorless cell that closely resembles RBCs but is smaller and budding? Yeast
Created by: mstanley