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(Respiratory System)

What does the respiratory system consist of? Pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and two lungs
How many c-shaped cartilaginous rings are in the trachea? 16-20
How big is the trachea in diameter and length? It is 1/2 inch diameter & 4 1/2 inch in length
The rings of the trachea are incomplete posteriorly and extend around the anterior how much of the tube? 2/3
The trachea is anterior to what? Esophagus
What structure makes the trachea shift to the right slightly? Arching of the aorta
The trachea follows the curve of the vertebral column and extends from its junction with the larynx at what level of the vertebral column? C6- T4, T5
How far down does the trachea go? Between T4 and T5
The last tracheal cartilage is elongated and has a hooklike process called what? Carina
At the carina, the trachea divides into 2 lesser tubes called what? Primary bronchi
What is another word for divides? Bifurcates
Which primary bronchus is shorter, wider, and more vertical than the other? Right Bronchus
Which primary bronchus is foreign bodies more likely to pass into? Right because of its greater diameter and more vertical position
How many lobes does the right lobe have? 3
How many lobes does the left lobe have? 2
What order does the bronchial tree go? 1. Primary Bronchus 2. Secondary Bronchus 3. Tertiary Bronchus 4. Smaller Bronchioles 5. Terminal Bronchioles
The terminal bronchioles communicate with what? Alveolar Ducts
What is at each end of the alveolar ducts? Alveolar Sacs
What lines the walls of the alveolar sacs? Alveoli
Where is oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged by diffusion? Alveoli
What are the organs of respiration? Lungs
What is composed of a light, spongy, highly elastic substance and covered by a layer of serous membrane? Parenchyma
What rounded part of lung reaches above the level of the clavicles? Apex
What part of the lung reaches lower in back and at the sides than in the front? Base
Which lung is about 1 inch shorter than the other? Right lung
What organ occupies space that makes the right lung shorter? Liver
Which surface of the lung conforms with the shape of the chest wall? Lateral surface
Which surface is concave, fitting over the diaphragm? Inferior surface
Which way do the lungs move on inspiration? They move inferiorly
Which way do the lungs move on expiration? They move superiorly
During inspiration, the lateral margins descend into the deep recesses of the parietal pleura what do we call this recess? Costophrenic angle
The mediastinal surface is concave with a depression that accommodates the bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves is called what? Hilum
What is the cardiac notch? The inferior mediastinal surface of the left that conforms to the shape of the heart
Each lung is enclosed in a double-walled serous membrane sac called what? Pleura
What is the visceral pleura? The inner layer of the sac that closely adheres to the surface of the lung
What is the parietal pleura? The outer layer of the sac that lines the wall of the thoracic cavity and closely adheres to the upper surface of the diaphragm.
The 2 layers are moistened by what so that they move easily on each other and prevents friction between the lungs and chest wall during respiration? Serous fluid
Which fissure divides the lungs into superior and inferior lobes? Oblique fissure
Which fissure of the right lung creates a middle lobe? Horizontal fissure
The portion of the left lung which corresponds to the middle lobe of the right lung is called what? Lingula
What area of the thorax is bounded by the sternum anteriorly, the spine posteriorly, and the lungs laterally? Mediastinum
What structures are associated with the mediastinum? 1. Heart 2. Great vessels 3. Trachea 4.Esophagus 5. Thymus 6. Lymphatics 7. Nerves 8. Fibrous tissue 9. Fat
What part of the digestive canel that connects the pharynx with the stomach? Esophagus
How long is the esophagus is length? 9 inches
What organ is the primary control of the lymphatic system? Thymus gland
What hormone does the thymus gland produce? Thymosin
The thymus reaches its maximum size when? Puberty
What is Aspiration/Foreign Body? Inspiration of a foreign material into the airway
What is Atelectasis? A collapse of all or part of the lung
What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD)? Chronic condition of persistent obstruction of bronchial airflow
What is Emphysema? Destructive and obstructive airway changes leading to an increased volume of air in the lungs
What is Hyaline Membrane Disease or Respiratory Distress Syndrome? Underaeration of the lungs due to a lack of surfactant
What is Pleural Effusion? Collection of fluid in the pleural cavity
What is Pneumonia? Acute infection in the lung parenchyma
What is Aspiration Pneumonia? Pneumonia caused by aspiration of foreign particles
What is Interstitial or Viral or Pneumonitis Pneumonia? Pneumonia caused by a virus and involving the alveolar walls and interstitial structures
What is Lobar or Bacterial Pneumonia? Pneumonia involving the alveoli of entire lobe without involving the bronchi
What is Lobular or Bronchopneumonia Pneumonia? Pneumonia involving the bronchi and scattered throughout the lung
What is Pneumothorax? Accumulation of air in the pleural cavity resulting in collapse of the lung
What is Pulmonary Edema? Replacement of air with fluid in the lung interstitium and alveoli
Created by: elkins.brett