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Carbohydrates AS

Carbohydrates - taken from CGP AS level biology revision 2008

QuestionAnswer
What are carbohydrates made from? Monosaccharides
Most carbohydrates are large complex molecules, but what are they composed of? Long chains of monosaccharides (e.g starch is a large carbohydrate composed of long chains of glucose!)
What are SINGLE monosaccharides called? Carbohydrates
What is GLUCOSE? Hexose Sugar
What is HEXOSE sugar? A monosaccharide with '6' carbon atoms in each molecule
What two forms of glucose are there? alpha (α) and beta (β)
What is the main energy source in animals and plants? Glucose
What is good about the structure of Glucose? It can easily be transported
Glucose's chemical bond contains..... Lots of energy
What are DISACCHARIDES? Two monosaccharides joined together
How are monosaccharides joined together? GLYCOSIDIC bonds in a condensation reaction
When HYDROGEN on one monosaccharide bonds to a HYDROXYL (OH) group on the other, what happens? They release a molecule of water
So what is the reverse of this called? HYDROLYSIS reaction, where a molecule of water reacts with the glycoside bond, breaking it apart
What do two monosaccharides joining together form? Disaccharide
Two α-glucose molecules joined together by a glycosidic bond form what? Maltose
Name two more Disaccharides: ___ose and ___ose? Lactose and Sucrose
Name two Monosaccharides: β-__ose + ___ose & α-___ose + ___ose? β-glucose + galactose, α-glucose + fructose
What are chains of more than two monosaccharides called? Polysaccharides
How are polysaccharides formed? When more than two monosaccharides join together
Polysaccharides for in exactly the same way as disaccharides, can you remember how? A condensation reaction releasing a molecule of water
What do lots of α-glucose molecules joining together by glycosidic bonds form? AMYLOSE
Created by: biggybigster