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Certification Study

How does Coaxial cable work? Coaxial cable, or coax, brings the signal down from a rooftop antenna to a TV set or radio receiver—or, in this case, to link together networked devices.
What is Crosstalk? Crosstalk is an unwanted interaction, or interference, between two electrical signals.
What is Four-pair UTP Cable? Telephone-type cable known as unshielded twisted pair, or UTP. UTP network cables, as shown in the figure below, have four pairs of twisted wires. The twists in the cable pairs reduce crosstalk and also act as a partial shield.
Explain the two types of UTP Cable? Patch Cable and Premises Cable Just to add yet another twist to the story, UTP cable comes in two types: * The stuff that's used for patch leads – Patch cables have a conductive core of fine strands of copper to make them flexible to route thr
What is plenum cable? Plenum is a fancy name for the gap between the real ceiling and the suspended tiles.
How does straight-through cable work? The typical straight-through cable for CAT 5 uses only four wires—wires 1, 2, 3, and 6. With a straight-through cable, pin 1 of the RJ-45 connector on one end follows the wire to pin 1 on the other end, and as a result, pin 1 on both ends of the wire are
How does crossover cable work? When you use a crossover cable to connect two computers directly, the crossover cable will connect the transmit pins on one computer to the receive pins on the second computer using wires 1 and 2 in the cable.
How does roll over cable work? Rollover cable: Also known as the console cable, it connects the administrator's system to the console port of a Cisco router or switch. The administrator connects the console cable to his or her serial port and then to the console port of the switch or
What's the purpose of the loopback cable? Loopback cable: We use this special cable for self-diagnostics and typically have the wires connecting the transmit pins to the receive pins on the same system, keeping the communication local. This cable type is only a testing tool; we don't use it for
How are cables connected from the wall jack to the patch panel? We typically connect cables from the wall jack to the patch panel by a punch-down tool.
Name two types of wiring patch panels? A couple of standards deal with wiring patch panels: for wiring the telephone system, use 66 block, and to wire the patch panel for CAT 5 or better UTP cable, use 100/110 block.
Explain the two types of Crosstalk: There are two types of crosstalk – near-end crosstalk, or NEXT, and far-end crosstalk or FEXT. NEXT occurs when a signal causes interference with a signal on an adjacent wire heading in the same direction, while FEXT occurs when a signal causes interferen
How does an AD HOC Network work? In an ad hoc network, the wireless nodes communicate directly with each other; you would not need to have a WAP for two hosts to communicate. Although this might be handy for transferring files between two laptops in the train station, ad hoc 802.11 netwo
What security methods can be used to prevent hackers from stealing wireless data? To address these issues, wireless networks use three methods of security, although only the second and third methods help: * Disabling broadcast of the Service Set Identification * MAC address filtering * Data encryption
How can a hacker get around security when SSID broadcasting is disabled? Kismet is a piece of software that enables you to see cloaked wireless networks and the clients connected to those networks. Even the default Wi-Fi detection in Windows Vista and Windows 7 will report a non-broadcasting network.
What layer of the OSI Model does the NIC work at? NICs operate at the Data Link or layer 2.
How does MAC Address Filtering work? Most wireless access points support MAC address filtering or MAC address reservations, a feature that enables you to limit access to your wireless network based on the physical, hard-wired addresses of the wireless network adapters you support.
What is a media converter? A media converter is a small adapter that converts from one connector style to another connector style, allowing you to switch from one cable type to another. For example, you can have a media converter that converts from UTP cabling to fiber-optic cablin
What is the purpose of a repeater? A repeater simply takes the incoming electrical signals, corrects any voltage drops, and then retransmits the cleaned signals.
What layer of the OSI model does a Hub and Repeater operate at? Hubs also operate at the Physical layer, like a repeater, and you can deduce from this that both repeaters and hubs don't do much except pass electrical signals from one port to another.
What is the definition of jabbering? If a faulty Ethernet NIC starts to send out an endless stream of unintelligible data, it is "jabbering." Jabbering is similar to deliberately generating reflections and will stop every other device from using the network.
What layer of the OSI model does a bridge function? Bridges operate at the Data Link layer, layer 2 of the OSI model.
How does a Switch work? A switch has more intelligence than your average kind of hub: For example, a switch can filter traffic by sending the data only to the port on the switch where the destination MAC address resides. This is different from a hub in the sense that a hub alway
What are the three core functions of a Switch? •Address learning : When a system that is connected to the switch sends data to another system, the switch records the port to which each system is connected according to the MAC address of the system. The switch learns the MAC address because the header
Switches can process the data packets in two ways: •Store-and-forward switches store an entire data packet in memory while they analyze it, check its addressing, and check it for errors. Once a switch is happy with the data packet, it forwards the data packet to the appropriate port. If, however, the data
What Layer of the OSI model does a Switch operate? Switches operate at layer 2 of the OSI model. You can remember this because switches work with MAC addresses, which are layer 2 components, to filter traffic.
What are the benefits of a Routed Network? The benefits of a routed network include fault tolerance and a high degree of control over how data gets around a WAN—favor faster or slower routes, or other routing decisions based on number of hops or cost of using a particular route.
What is a physical segment? Everything out one port of a Router or between two Routers.
How does NetBEUI work? When you install NetBEUI on a Windows operating system, you are actually installing both protocols. The NetBIOS protocol is responsible for Session layer functionality, while the NetBEUI protocol is responsible for Transport layer functionality.
How is IPX/SPX configured? Because IPX/SPX is routable, however, every client needs a network address, entered as part of a server's configuration. The important point to remember here is that every server on the same network must be configured with the same network address.
How does a connection-oriented protocol work? A connection-oriented protocol verifies the delivery and receipt of each and every packet sent. Connection-oriented protocols also check whether the destination device is actually present before sending it any data—they establish a connection between the
How does a connectionless protocol work? Connectionless or unreliable protocols assume that everything's working fine and expect something elsewhere to notice any problems. Because of the smaller data transmission management overhead, connectionless protocols tend to be faster than connection-or
What are some examples of connectionless and connection-oriented protocols? SPX is a connection-oriented protocol in the IPX/SPX protocol suite, while IPX is connectionless protocol. NetBEUI can provide both connection-oriented and connectionless packet delivery services.
What is NFS? Network File System or NFS is a file-sharing protocol that allows users access to network disks as though they were connected to the local system. NFS is a popular protocol used in UNIX and Linux to allow sharing of the file system and printers.
What is the purpose of SAMBA? Before SAMBA, you could share files between UNIX systems and other platforms using various file transfer programs and disk tools, but SAMBA makes things much simpler. SAMBA also provides client tools for UNIX and Linux workstations to access Windows serve
What is NTP? The Network Time Protocol or NTP is an industry protocol that is used to synchronize the time on a system with a central server on a LAN or on the Internet. In most network environments, you will configure the clients to set their time from a server on t
What is the purpose of the ARP or Address Resolution Protocol? It converts the IP address, a layer 3 address, of the destination computer to the MAC address, a layer 2 address. It does this through broadcast.
How does ICMP work? If you have ever used the PING utility to verify that a remote system is up and running, you have seen replies come back to you. ICMP is the protocol used by PING to report the replies to you.
What is IGMP? IGMPor Internet Group Management Protocol is the TCP/IP protocol that is responsible for multicasting, or sending data to groups of systems at one time. IGMP is popular with streaming video or gaming applications, for which the same data needs to deliver
What is the role of APIPA? Most current operating systems, such as Windows, support a feature known as Automatic Private IP Addressing or APIPA, which allows a system to assign itself an address if a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, or DHCP, server is not available on the netwo
What is the purpose of the Loopback address? Referred to as the loopback address, messages sent to never leave the sending machine; instead, they are redirected back through the internal software layers to communicate with network software running on the localhost, a fancy name for "this m
How does IP Address ANDing work? When communicating from one system to another, the IP protocol on the sending computer determines whether the destination system exists on the same network through a process called ANDing. ANDing is done at the bit level. The first thing to do when ANDing
How does CIDR or classless routing work? For example, you know that the IP address uses the first two octets as the network ID when you see the subnet mask of You may also indicate this by using the CIDR, or Classless Inter Domain Routing, notation, whic
How does distance vector routing protocol work? A distance vector routing protocol keeps track of different networks and how many hops away, or routers away, each network is. A distance vector routing protocol considers the best pathway being the shortest path with the least number of hops.
List distance vector routing protocols: RIP, RIPV2, IGRP and BGP
How does link state routing protocol work? Link state routing protocols decide the best route to use based on bandwidth, not based on the number of hops, as a distance vector routing protocol does. Most routers assign a cost value to each type of link, and we typically select the route with the l
List link state routing protocols? OSPF, ISIS
How does hybrid routing protocol work? A hybrid routing protocol uses features of distance vector and link state. A hybrid protocol will keep a hop count list but at the same time have a cost associated with a route based on the bandwidth of the link.
Name the hybrid routing protocol? EIGRP
How does NetBIOS manages connections? NetBIOS manages connections between machines using NetBIOS names—essentially the "computer name." The Sockets standard manages connections based on an IP address and a port number.
What is a Socket? A socket is a combination of a port number, a protocol, and an IP address. A socket defines the endpoints of communication, uniquely identifying a TCP/IP application that runs on a system.
What files reside on the hard drive to perform name resolution? Text files reside on the hard drives of client computers that can be used for name resolution. The HOSTS file resolves FQDNs to IP addresses, whereas the LMHOSTS file resolves NetBIOS names to IP addresses.
Dive Duplexing If you really want to keep your data safe, you can use two separate controllers for each drive. With two drives, each on a separate controller, the system will continue to operate even if the primary drive's controller stops working. We call this drive-mi
Drive Mirroring You could, for example, install a fancy hard drive controller that reads and writes data to two hard drives—the primary drive and the mirror drive—simultaneously. The data on each drive would always be identical, so if one drive were to fail, you would st
Disk Striping with Parity Disk striping with parity protects data by adding a parity drive. The parity drive stores information that you can use to rebuild data should one of the data drives fail. To use disk striping with parity, you must have at least three drives to stripe, and
RAID •RAID 0 – Disk striping. No data protection! •RAID 1 – Disk mirroring and disk duplexing. •RAID 2 – Disk striping with multiple parity drives. Unused; ignore it. •RAID 3 and 4 – Disk striping with parity. The differences between RAID 3 and 4 are trivia
SCSI Harddrive Small Computer System Interface, or SCSI, also supports a wide variety of devices, including hard disks, and it performs much better than EIDE under heavy load conditions.
EIDE Harddrive Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics, or EIDE, disks are most commonly found in desktop PCs. The EIDE interface supports a maximum of four devices, which can be CD-ROM drives, tape backup systems, and removable drives, as well as hard disks. EIDE has alw
SATA Drives In recent years, IDE drives have been replaced by Serial ATA, or SATA, drives. Serial ATA drives offer the performance benefit of a transfer rate 30 times faster than that of IDE! SATA drives are also hot-swappable, which makes them great solutions for lo
Archive Bit The key to understanding how to manage and perform backups is to know about the existence and use of a file attribute called the archive attribute. All files have a series of attributes, or archive bits, that act as on/off or set/unset indicators for the
CHAP The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol or CHAP is more secure than PAP. After the establishment of a remote connection, the server sends a challenge message to the requestor for confirmation of the user's password. The requestor generates a resp
EAP A newer authentication protocol called the Extensible Authentication Protocol, or EAP, is popular in wireless security but can also be used for remote access solutions. EAP is a framework that incorporates many facets of security such as authentication an
PKI Private Key Infrastructure, or PKI, is an entire cryptography system that can be used for authentication and encryption services. The PKI structure starts by having a certificate authority installed that is responsible for issuing digital certificates use
TACACS+ TACACS+: Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System Plus is an AAA protocol that provides AAA services for access to routers, network access points, and other networking equipment. TACACS+ is popular in the Cisco environment.
Host-based Firewall Host-based firewall is typically a piece of software installed that simply protects the system on which it is installed.
Network-based Firewall The Network-based firewall is designed to protect packets from entering the network
Stateless Firewall A stateless firewall is simply a packet-filtering firewall that looks at the IP address and port address information in the packet and decides whether the packet can pass through the firewall based on the source/destination IP or the source/destination p
Statefull Firewall Stateful firewalls can filter the traffic based on the IP address and port information, but they can also filter the traffic based on the context of the conversation or the information in the application data portion of the packet.
Why use a port scanner? When administering firewalls, you must make sure that you perform a port scan on the firewall on a regular basis. Performing a port scan on the firewall will indicate to you which ports are open on the firewall and what traffic is able to pass through th
Copying files securely: When copying files from one system to another, if you need to protect the contents of the information being copied, look to the Secure Copy, or SCP, feature instead of the traditional Remote Copy, or RCP feature in UNIX. The SCP protocol uses SSH to perfo
NAT Network Address Translation intended to provide a temporary solution to the problems caused by the shortage of spare IP addresses. Commonly implemented in IP routers, NAT allows multiple computers on a network to connect to the Internet through a single
Host-based IDS: Installed on a system and detects attacks against that one system.
Network-based IDS: A device or software installed on a system that analyzes network traffic and tries to identify suspicious activity. Snort is an example of a network-based IDS.
File-based IDS: Monitors files on the system and notifies you of changes to the files. Tripwire is an example of a file-based IDS.
PC Security: CMOS settings on the systems and servers could include changing the boot order in CMOS so that systems don't boot off CD-ROMs, setting a password to control who can enter and make changes to the CMOS, and disabling ports such as USB ports so that employee
Mitigation Techniques - Software/Hardware Patches Best Practices Security: One of the most effective ways to help keep your systems secure is to apply all software and hardware patches and security updates in a timely fashion. Buffer overflow attacks compromise most systems, and once the attack is known, the software vendor prov
Denial of Service: Denial of Service: The attacker floods a system with too much information, causing it to crash or to be so busy servicing the information that it cannot service valid requests from real clients.
Distributed Denial of Server or DDoS: Distributed Denial of Server or DDoS : A DoS attack in which the attacker uses many systems to perform the attack. The most popular DDoS attack is a smurf attack, in which the attacker sends a ping message to thousands of other systems, but spoofs the sou
Spoof: Spoof: The attacker alters the source address of the information, generally to trick the user into thinking that the information came from somewhere other than the attacker or to bypass security filters that are in place. These attacks can be – altering t
Port scan: Port scan: The attacker uses a port scanner to find out what ports are open on the systems on your network. Once the attacker knows what ports are open on different systems, he can plan which services to attack.
Eavesdrop Eavesdrop: Also known as sniffing, this attack involves the attacker getting access to the network and running a packet sniffer. Once the packet sniffer is run, the attacker can potentially receive a copy of all information that travels on the network.
IPSec: Used to encrypt all IP traffic on the network or VPN. Uses the Encapsulation Security Payload, or ESP, protocol to do the encryption, and uses the Internet Key Exchange, or IKE, protocol to set up the session key that performs the encryption. You can conf
Define Remote Connectivity Remote connectivity means being able to access resources on an organization's network from a remote site. To establish remote access using a dial-up—PSTN or ISDN—connection, you need client software on the remote machine and also a remote access server pr
Describe the process to connect to a corporate network through a VPN: 1.The employee gets Internet access at home, in a hotel, or at another location. 2.Once the employee has Internet access, he can connect to the VPN server by typing the IP address into the New Connection dialog box. 3.After the client connects to the se
How does NetWare 5.x and 6.x login work? NetWare servers enable users to log in once and access all their resources by logging into the NDS tree, now known as the eDirectory.
How does Windows login work? Windows servers enable users to log in once and access all their resources by logging into Active Directory.
Active Directory: Microsoft Active Directory, or Directory Services, is a model for centralized server management and was introduced with Windows 2000 Server and continued on with Windows 2003 and Windows 2008. Like NetWare Directory Services, it's based on the X.500 stand
NDS: NetWare 4.x built on the success of NetWare 3.x by adding two key features: Novell Directory Services or NDS, and TCP/IP encapsulation. NDS organizes all user and resource information in a database, referred to as the NDS tree. The NDS tree acts as a cent
Windows User Profiles and Group Policies: Windows clients support the use of user profiles, which enhance both the usability and security of a network. User profiles are a collection of settings that correspond to specific user accounts, and they allow each user to customize his or her working en
Content switch: Content switch : A switch that can implement performance features on different types of traffic. Examples of the performance features may be data caching or load-balancing services.
Multilayer switch: Multilayer switch : A switch that runs at different layers of the OSI model.
IDS/IPS: IDS/IPS : An IDS/IPS can identify suspicious traffic on the network or system and send out an alert regarding the activity.
Load balancer: Load balancer : Hardware or software that provides load-balancing services and is designed to divide the network activity between multiple hosts. Load balancers offer a number of other features such as data caching.
Multifunction network device: Multifunction network device : A device that has features of many different devices built in. A great example would be the typical home router that you purchased for your network—this device is a firewall, NAT server, DHCP server, switch, and wireless acc
DNS server: DNS server : A server on the network that converts the FQDN to an IP address.
Bandwidth shaper: Bandwidth shaper : Performs bandwidth shaping, also known as traffic shaping, where traffic is purposely held back, or delayed, based on its type. Traffic shaping conserves bandwidth at different times for specific applications.
Proxy server: Proxy server : A device that request resources, such as web pages, for the client system and then returns the page to the client system instead of the client system retrieving the content itself.
CSU/DSU: CSU/DSU : The channel service unit/data service unit is the device that connects to your router, which connects your network to the digital link such as a T1 or T3 link.
VPN concentrator: VPN concentrator : A specific device designed to offer a highly secure VPN solution to an organization using the highest level of security technologies such as encryption and authentication services.
What is bandwidth? The data signal traveling through the network media, which is usually some form of copper wire, is an electrical signal that's changing voltage rapidly to represent a string of binary data. Bandwidth is any signal that changes in this cyclic way and has a
Coaxial Cable: Coaxial cable has a central conducting core surrounded by a protective, insulating layer, an outer metal screen made of a woven copper mesh, a metal-covered plastic or foil, and an overall insulating jacket as shown in the figure. The cable is referred to
Created by: aleite



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