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Soft Tissue Healing

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 types of inflammation Acute, Chronic, and Systemic
What is the name for inflammed lymph nodes which can lead to recurrent microtrauma or persistent irritation from foreign may lead to chronic inflammation? Lymphadenitis
What are inflamed lymph vessels associated with systemic inflammation? Lymphangitis
What is vasodilation, increased vascualr permeability, increased blood viscosity and decreased lymphatice drainage? Vascular Changes
What involves cells to increase in diameter and increased blood flow? Vasodilation
What vascular change allows cells to pass through? Increased vascular permeability
What vascular change is happening when blood is thickened? Increased blood viscosity
What results when blood flow is regulated, localized and there is a prevention of the inflammation from spreading? Decreased lymphatic drainage
What is an important point for inflammation? To create a favorable healing environment and kill dead tissue and microorganisms.
How do cells call for help? Chemical Mediators
What is a non specific defense where the amount of exudate will exceed lymphatic drainage? Decreased lymphatic flow
What do mast cells release? Histamine
What is the way that white blood cells enter? Through intercellular gaps
What are hyperthermia, erythema, edema, loss of function and pain? The 5 Cardinal Signs of Inflammation
What happens when the tissue starts to die? Decrease in local circulation
What is involved in an innate defense system? Non specific defense, skin, mucous and it is a 2nd line of defense (WBCs)
When there is a specifice response and a persistent pathogen, what is the defense system called? Adaptive defense system
What are the steps of cellular response?Step 1: hemopoiesis Hemopoiesis, leukocytosis, and accumulation of leukocytes at injury site.
What is the name of the process when white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow? Hemopoiesis
The release of white blood cells from bone marrow is called?Step Leukocytosis
What is the most abundant leukocyte Neutrophils
What are the steps in leukocyte activity? Margination, adhesion, emigration, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis.
What is happening when leukocytes are accumulating along the vascular wall? Margination
Leukocytes attach themselves to the vascular wall with chemical mediators and adhesion molecules and this is called... Adhesion
Movement of the leukocytes throught hte intercellular gaps (endothilial cells)into the interstitial space is called? Emigration
Leukocytes have an attraction only to the injured site, what is this called? Chemotaxis
Which leukocytes are involved in phagocytosis? Polymorphonuclear and mononuclear
What is involved in phagocytosis? Eating the debris and dead cells
What is the purpose of phagocytosis? To prepare for fibroplasia
There are 4 steps of phagocytic activity, what are they? Recognition, engulfment, and degradation
What do dead leukocytes turn into? Pus
What happens after 3 to 4 days after acute inflammation and the leukocytes have destroyed foreign agents, allowing for a promising healing environment? Subacute Inflammation
What are the main phagocytic cells? Mononuclear leukocytes
What are enlarge-macrophages Monocytes
What is the duration of subacute inflammation? 2 weeks
When an injury is not treated properly or the body doesn't do what it needs to do? Chronic Inflammation
What are some examples of chronic inflammation? Tendonitis, Bursitis
What are some characteristics of chronic inflammation? Gradual onset; persistent inflammation and Continuous presence of macrophages, increased number of lymphocytes
What is a prime example of a tell tale sign of chronic inflammation? Continuous presence of macrophages, increased number of lymphocytes
Lymphocytes are involved in... Lymph nodes, spleen, blood, Nonphagocytic cells, Specific defenses,Antigens,Respond/recognize only specific antigens, B and T cells
What is the capability of cellular immunity? To regulate B cells
The change into plasma cell which produce antibodies is called? Differentiation of B cells
What is the function of the antibodies in humoral immunity? To destroy the antigen
What is the main difference between humoral and cellular immunity? Cellular immunity does not need to produce antibodies.
What is the formation of scar tissue via proliferation of fibroblasts, collagen synthesis, formation of granulation tissue, wound contraction, and dense fibrous scar formation? Fybroplasia
Connective tissue cells produce collagen, healthy tissue: synthesize collagen, and the injured tissue:synthesizes increase dramatically...what are they called? Fibroblasts
Name this process: 1) Macrophages release a chemical mediator attracting fibroblasts to injury site 2) Fibroblasts entwine themselves at the site of the blood clot 3) In position to develop new tissue matrix 4)Occurs within 48 hours after injury Proliferation of Fibroblasts
What does edema do during vascular changes? Transudate and exudate
Collagen Synthesis is.... Crucial to strength
What is collagen fiber formation called? Fibrogenesis
The following are functions of what level?Formation of 3 polypeptide alpha chains Forms the procallogen molecule Cellular Level
What is involved in the formation of 3 polypeptide alpha chains? Amino acids, Chemical makeup will determine the type of collagen to be formed, fibrillar collagens
When edema exudates and blood cells, proteins cause an increase in blood viscosity, what do the white blood cells do? Start to clean up the area which leads to cellular response and phagocytic activity begins.
What do tropocollagen molecules that bind together form? Fibrils, which are covalent bonds
As the fibrils form a bundle a fiber is formed, what is this called? Collagen fibers
What is the basic unit of a collagen fiber? Tropollagen
Binding of the various molecules and fibers via hydrogen or covalent bonds is what determines the strength of the collagen bundles, what happens if these bonds and/or crosslinks are damaged? Leads to a dramatice decrease in the tensile strength of the structure
What is some of the activity that happens during Type III Collagen Formation? They begin to deposit at the injury site within 24 hours, and is the primary piece of granulation tissue.
What occurs at the same time of Type III collagen formation? Vascular network formation
The branching of new capillaries is called? Endothelial budding
What is the creation of new blood cells? Angiogenesis
What is the color of the wound during vasculare network formation? Pink
In the last stage of formation of granulation tissue, developing blood vessels begin to branch out and connect, creating a new vascular supply in the new tissue matrix:anastomose, branching out occurs @ the same time type III collagen fibers are created, Neovascularization
What does neovascularization aid in? Lymphatic drainage
When do the specialized myofibroblasts show up? Within 4 days
When does wound contraction peak? After 2 weeks
The following characteristize? 1) Specialized connective tissue cells 2) Contractile properties 3) Appear within 4 days of trauma 4) Active druing granulation tissue formation Myofibroblasts
Myofibroblasts connect with the new tissue and then.... Pulls the tissue closer together
Going from type III to type I leaves what type of scar? Avascular
Do scars have the same structural properties as normal/uninjured connective tissue? No
The following steps describe what? 1) Transition from Type III to Type I collagen 2) Increase in collagen deposition 3) Resorption of blood vessels Fibrosis
What is the formation that the following describes? 1) tensile strength take over Type III 2) After 1 week 3) Due to an increase # of crosslinks 4) Major element in connective tissue matrix 5) Transition from granulation tissue to normalcy Type I collagen formation
When can the wound go into the 3rd stage? After enough collagen is laid down and the number of fibroblasts decreases
About 3 weeks after the injury, this process occurs.... Scar Maturation
What aids in Wolf's Law? Rehab and massage
When synthesis and lysis are equal and the structure is maintained, the end of fibroplasia and the fibroblasts and collagen sysnthesis decreases. This describes.... Collagen Turnover
The following are character of? 1)Strength increases faster than the rate of collagen synthesis 2)Develop of cross-links within and between collagen molecules 3) A more dense,less pliable scar 4) Intralinksin fiber 5) Interlinksbetween the fiber Collagen Cross-Links
Describe Wolf's Law: Alignment of Collagen fibers to provide the greatest amount of resistance. Strength deficit 30 to 50% if not strengthened can lead to chronic instability
What is Specific Adaptation to Impose Demands? The SAID principle
The following is the healing response for? (I) 48 to 72 hours (F) 6-8 weeks (S) 20-30 months Ligament
The following is the healing response for? (I) 48 to 72 hours (F) 4-8 weeks (S) 12 weeks Muscles
The following is the healing response for? (I) 48 to 72 hours (F) 4-6 weeks (S) 12-20 weeks Tendon
The following is the healing response for? (I) 2-7 days (F) 1" per month (S) Up to a year Nerves
The following is the healing response for? (I) 48 to 72 hours (F) 6 months (S) 2 years Articular Cartilage
During this process _____ 1) Chronic inflammation 2) Foreign agent/material 3) Granuloma formation 4) Fibroplasia begins before chronic inflammation is complete 5) Collagen may surround the granulomas 6) gGranulomatosis Granulomatous Inflammation
The following describes... 1) Myofibers: 2) Endomysium: 3) Regeneration and repair are competing processes 4) Extent of injury will determine what structures are damaged 5) Scar tissue laid down via the damaged endomysium interrupts the regenerat Retardation of Muscle Fiber
What are abnormal shortening of a tissue and causes a decrease in range of motion? Contractures
How long does acute inflammation last? 3 to 4 days
How long does subacute inflammation last? 2 weeks
Created by: dmart171