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Neural Bases Part 3b

Neuroscience for Speech and Hearing, test 1

QuestionAnswer
The limbic system includes areas that are important for emotional response, olfaction, learning and memory. Functionally, they regulate all visceral, endocrine and sensorimotor functions.
the function of the CINGULATED GYRUS emotional, somatic and autonomic functions
the function of the HIPPOCAMPUS storing and retrieving memories; learning
the function of the BASAL NUCLEI don’t initiate motor activity, but regulate cortically initiated motor activity, incl speech by suppressing competing movements for precise and target motor activity
the function of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS involved with motor function
the function of the AMYGDALA generally responsible for activating emotional behavior, related to limbic sys; aggression, mating, stress-mediated responses, memory, feeding and drinking
the function of the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA contains a group of nuclei that produce dopamine, inhibitory to caudate and putamen
Parkinson’s disease a degenerative lesion involving substantia nigra
the primary function of the THALAMUS integrates and relays all sensorimotor information to cerebral cortex, except olfaction
Thalamic Syndrome increased or decreased thresholds for the sensations of touch, pain and temperature on the contralateral side of the body
the primary functions of the HYPOTHALAMUS as the central regulator of the autonomic and endocrine functions, it controls visceral functions including: body temperature regulation, eating and drinking, etc
clinical symptoms that commonly result from hypothalamic dysfunction disturbances of food intake, water balance, libido (hubba hubba), menstruation, and temperature control
the 3 primary divisions of the BRAINSTEM (mesencephalon) midbrain, pons, medulla
the function of the CEREBELLUM important for equilibrium and the coordination of movement; acts as a comparator of motor output and sensory input to fine tune movement, important for locomotion, movement learning and balance
the function of the PEDUNCLES connect the cerebellum with the brainstem
the function of the superior peduncle transmits cerebellar outputs to the brainstem, then to the thalamus, motor cortex and spinal cord; mediates ongoing movements
the function of the middle peduncle relays ongoing sensorimotor information from opposite cerebral hemispheres
the function of the inferior peduncle mediates sensorimotor information from the spinal cord and brainstem, mediates vestibular information
CEREBELLAR NUCLEI: dentate limb coordination
CEREBELLAR NUCLEI: interposed regulates movements of ipsilateral extremities
CEREBELLAR NUCLEI: fastigial connected to vestibular system; maintains equilibrium and body posture
the functional organization of the CEREBELLAR LOBE ipsilateral organization
CEREBELLAR LOBE: the function of the archicerebellum balance
CEREBELLAR LOBE: the function of the paleocerebellum locomotion, muscle tone, equilibrium and posture
CEREBELLAR LOBE: the function of the neocerebellum limb and speech coordination
general characteristics of cerebellar symptoms an ipsilateral character to the signs, deficits related to motor functions with no sensory loss or paralysis, gradual recovery
the results of damage to the cerebellum patients cannot precisely control their body parts during movement even though they seem normal in regard to strength and somatosensation; most pronounced in activities that require rapid, alternating movements
Cerebellar impairment: Ataxia lack of order and coordination in sequential voluntary muscle activity
Cerebellar impairment: Dysarthria impaired ability to make needed modifications and alteration in ongoing oral-facial movement; produces a drastic effect on speech
Cerebellar impairment:Dysmetria an error in the judgment of a movement’s range or the distance to the target
Cerebellar impairment: Hypotonia normal muscle tension is decreased and the muscle becomes floppy
Cerebellar impairment: Disequilibrium predominantly affects the legs; marked by unsteady gait with the body wavering toward the side of the lesion
PONS: Metencephalon Location: between the midbrain and medulla; Function: contains all descending motor fibers and ascending sensory fibers
MEDULLA OBLONGATA: Myelencephalon Location: Most caudal part of the brainstem; Function: it contains all the motor fibers that descend to the spinal cord and all the sensory fibers that carry sensory information from the body to the more rostral brain areas
DERMATOME an area of skin that is supplied with the nerve fibers of a single, posterior, spinal root; 31 pairs of spinal nerves are formed by the merging of sensory and motor roots of the spinal cord
ASCENDING CIRCUITS sends sensory information from the body parts up to the brain
DESCENDING CIRCUITS sends motor information down to muscles; Decussation pattern: on their way to the spinal cord, the corticospinal fibers cross the midline at the causal end of the medulla to form the lateral corticospinal tract
Created by: jrschwa1