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Test 1

Healthy cellular adaptations hypertrophy, atrophy, hyperplasia
Pathologic cellular adaptations dysplasia, neoplasia
Causes of cellular injury/death apoptosis, hypoxia, free radicals, infection, trauma
Function of ADH retains water; pituitary gland; decreased urine output
Function of Aldosterone adrenal gland; reabsorption of sodium--water follows
Signs of dehydration dry mucous membranes, skin tenting, low BP, weak pulse, ^hematocrit
Sodium cation; extracelluar; nerve impulses
Normal levels Na 135-145 mEq/L
Signs of hyponatremia less nerve conduction; fatigue; muscle weakness; cell swelling; headache; confusion
Signs of hypernatremia cellular dehydration; thirst; edema; low urine output; nerve conduction problems
Potassium cation; intracellular; regulate intracellular fluid volume; nerve impulses;
Normal levels K 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Effects of hypokalemia cardiac dysryhtmias; neuromuscular weakness
Effects of hyperkalemia cardiac dysryhtmias; neuromuscular weakness
Calcium extracellular; cation; nerves, blood clotting, metabolic functions
Normal levels Calcium 8-10.5 d/L
Effects of hypocalcemia increased nerve excitability- tetany; cardiac dysrhythmias
Effects of hypercalcemia decreased nerve excitability; polyuria; cardiac dysrhythmias; bone effects
Body's 1st line of defense skin and body secretions
Body's 2nd line of defense inflammatory response (vasodilation, WBCs, phagos)
Body's 3rd line of defense immune response (cell and humoral mediated)
Specific line of defense 3rd- immune response
Nonspecific line of defense 1st and 2nd- skin/body secretions and inflammatory response
Phagocytic cells neutrophils and macrophages
4 cardinal signs of inflammation 1) redness/warmth 2) swelling/edema 3) pain 4) loss of function
Created by: awesomeandrea